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Making food systems more resilient to food safety risks by including artificial intelligence, big data, and internet of things into food safety early warning and emerging risk identification tools









Mu, W., Kleter, G. A., Bouzembrak, Y., Dupouy, E., Frewer, L. J., Radwan Al Natour, F. N., & Marvin, H. J. P. 2024. Making food systems more resilient to food safety risks by including artificial intelligence, big data, and internet of things into food safety early warning and emerging risk identification tools. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 23, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.13296



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    Book (stand-alone)
    Early warning tools and systems for emerging issues in food safety
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    Early warning (EW) systems have a critical role in the reduction of risks from various hazards. The capability and capacity to identify early signals and emerging food safety risks, and to provide on-time EW that would allow for the mitigation of related upcoming risks have therefore become vital for national and international authorities and organizations dealing with food safety. The developments in early warning systems show a shift from reactive towards proactive systems. With the rapid development of modern systems fed by numerous, real-time and diverse data, as well as the advancements achieved in artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques, increasingly tested and validated digital methods and models have become available for food safety early warning and analysis. This technical background report enhances the awareness of the available evidence-based innovative digital tools and provides technical background information to support their use for proactive food safety early warning.
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    Book (series)
    Joint FAO-IOC-IAEA technical guidance for the implementation of early warning systems for harmful algal blooms 2023
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    Globally, there are 3 400 to 4 000 described species of marine microalgae but only 1 to 2 percent are considered to be harmful. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have significant impacts on food safety and security through contamination or mass mortalities of aquatic organisms. The impacts and mass mortalities of marine species caused by harmful algae are not new and have been recorded for decades. However, there is growing concern that these events will increase due to accelerating global warming, climate change and anthropogenic activities. Indeed, if not properly controlled, aquatic products contaminated with HAB biotoxins are responsible for potentially deadly foodborne diseases and when rapidly growing, HAB consequences include reduced dissolved oxygen in the ocean, dead zones, and mass mortalities of aquatic organisms. Improving HAB forecasting is an opportunity to develop early warning systems for HAB events such as food contamination, mass mortalities, or foodborne diseases. Surveillance systems have been developed to monitor HABs in many countries; however, the lead-time or the type of data (i.e. identification at the species-level, determination of toxicity) may not be sufficient to take effective action for food safety management measures or other reasons, such as transfer of aquaculture products to other areas. Having early warning systems could help mitigate the impact of HABs and reduce the occurrence of HAB events. The Joint FAO-IOC-IAEA technical guidance for the implementation of early warning systems (EWS) for HABs will guide competent authorities and relevant institutions involved in consumer protection or environmental monitoring to implement early warning systems for HABs present in their areas (marine and brackish waters), specifically those affecting food safety or food security (benthic HABs, fish-killing HABs, pelagic toxic HABs, and cyanobacteria HABs). The guidance provides a roadmap for stakeholders on how to improve or implement an EWS for HABs and biotoxins, where appropriate. It is important to note that not all countries and institutions can implement the same level of EWS for HABs, and this guidance is intended mainly for those who seek to broaden existing early warning systems, or who are just beginning to consider putting a system in place.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Near-real-time monitoring of food crisis risk factors for improved early warning early action
    FSN Forum report of activity No. 168
    2020
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    This document summarizes the online discussion Near-real-time monitoring of food crisis risk factors for improved early warning early action, held at the FAO Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum) from 16 September to 18 October 2020. The discussion was facilitated by Betina Dimaranan of the Markets, Trade, and Institutions Division of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). This online discussion followed up on a recent Food Security Portal webinar that took stock of the advances in tools and approaches for real-time monitoring of food crisis risk factors in early warning early action systems. The discussion was one in a string of policy dialogues organized by the Food Security Portal that seeks to catalyze research and policy efforts to utilize real-time monitoring in food crisis risk assessment and prevention.

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