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Dairy development in Pakistan

Dairy Reports








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    Dairy development in Kazakhstan
    Dairy Reports
    2011
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    The Republic of Kazakhstan is the world’s ninth largest country and has one of its fastest growing economies, based largely on oil and gas production and mineral extraction. Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased from USD 1 260 in 2000 to USD 6 140 in 20081, with agriculture contributing 6.2 percent, services 51.9 percent and industry 41.9 percent2. The share of livestock production within agriculture’s 6.2 percent of GDP is increasing steadily, and currently stands at 45 percent, o f which the dairy sector contributes 38 percent and other livestock sectors 62 percent. With 47 percent of the total population living in rural areas, where many lack access to cropland but can send their livestock to communal pastures, it is clear that livestock plays a major role in the livelihood strategies of the population Kazakhstan has a continental climate, with hot dry summers and cold to extremely cold winters. Most areas outside the mountainous east, south and north are semi-arid to arid. Of the country’s land area, 69 percent is classified as rangeland, consisting of deserts, semi-deserts and steppes. Arable land covers only 11 percent and agricultural production is possible only with irrigation. The water for this comes from neighbouring countries, and is governed by bilateral and regional agreements; there is increasing tension over water-related issues in the region. Irrigated agriculture is mainly in the south; with the north depending on dryland farming and large-s cale intensive livestock production. During the Soviet years, wheat production and dairying in central parts of the country depended on high levels of external inputs, and this region is now used for extensive livestock production systems based on natural pastures for grazing and hay production. The end of the Soviet era brought major changes to the agriculture sector, which is still adjusting. The following chapter explains the effects of these changes on modes of producing, processing and ma rketing dairy products in Kazakhstan. It also describes Government policies for dairy development, which have recently been gathered into a Dairy Development Master Plan. This review is a follow-up to and utilizes information and findings from a dairy subsector study prepared by the FAO Investment Centre as part of a series of four subsector studies (FAO TCIN, 2010). This review summarizes the findings from the subsector study and provides additional information on the development of the dairy sector including camels/ mares milk production and the agro-ecological, social and institutional environment. The review concludes with the author’s views on the way forward for the Kazakhstan dairy sector.
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    Developing an Asian regional strategy for sustainable smallholder dairy development
    Proceedings of an FAO/APHCA/CFC-funded workshop
    2008
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    Dairy consumption in Asia and the Pacific has more than doubled in the last 25 years, rising 4 percent annually to reach an estimated 248 million tonnes in 2008, more than one-third of global totals. International market prices of dairy products, rising well over twice their levels of one year ago, hold considerable opportunities for future dairy development in Asia. But the opportunities for smallholder dairy producers can only be understood within a wide range of influencing factors: economic, institutional, commercial, legal, technological and social. Effective strategies for enhancing the contribution by smallholders to growing livestock product demand is complicated by the fact that the specific constraints/opportunities facing the sector differ not only by country but by specific localities. Consequently, useful models of small and large-holder milk producers, which are characterized by the specific linkages within the value chain, need to be reviewed and analyzed. It is partic ularly important that the enabling factors which are critical in successfully forging linkages between smallholder suppliers, processing facilities and traditional markets for fluid milk and other locally acceptable dairy products be identified, weighted and ranked. The selection and promotion of acceptable models need to be based on local conditions, market access, cultural factors and consumption patterns. These models could range from enterprise-driven smallholder dairy operations in the Phil ippines and Viet Nam, to cooperative development in South Asia, to strengthening opportunities for subsistence farmers in Bangladesh. Responding to the need to stimulate investment opportunities for smallholder dairy producers in Asia, FAO in collaboration with partners organized a workshop in Chiang Mai, Thailand from 26 to 29 February 2008 representing 17 countries in the region.
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    Dairy Development in Kenya 2011
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    Over the last five decades the global dairy sector has seen substantive changes with major intensification, scaling-up and efficiency of production driven by demand from a growing human population and disposal incomes. This growth was achievable through the developments in animal breeding, nutrition, feed efficiency, animal health, housing and automation and supporting policies, strategies and organizations. Such changes are not however reflected across the whole dairy sector and while some deve loping countries have seen a major expansion in small-scale milk production, small-scale dairying in other countries has largely stagnated. Dairying contributes positively to human wellbeing in a variety of different ways: nutrition through quality food products, income and employment, organic fertilizer as well as assets and savings. There are however negative aspects associated with dairying including its contribution to Green House Gases, pollution and waste disposal, food safety and human he alth, use of grains for feed, animal welfare and erosion of biodiversity. In order to inform the public and to make rational policy and investment decisions related to the dairy sector, it is essential to fully understand these complex interactions and their consequences. This paper provides a review of these issues for the dairy sector of Kenya. We hope this paper will provide accurate and useful information to its readers and any feedback is welcome by the author and the Livestock Production Systems Branch (AGAS) or to the Rural Infrastructure and Agro-Industries Division (AGS) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

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