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Environmental management of fish resources in the Black Sea and their rational exploitation. Studies and Reviews.











Prodanov, K.; Mikhailov, K.; Daskalov, G.; Maxim, C.; Chashchin, A.; Arkhipov, A.; Shlyakhov, V.; Ozdamar, E. Environmental management of fish resources in the Black Sea and their rational exploitation. Studies and Reviews. General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean. No. 68. Rome, FAO. 1997. 178p.


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    Monitoring incidental catch of vulnerable species in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea: Methodology for data collection 2019
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    Bycatch – a term widely used to refer to the part of catch unintentionally captured during a fishing operation, in addition to target species, and consisting of discards and incidental catches of vulnerable species – is considered one of the most important threats to the profitability and sustainability of fisheries, as well as to the conservation of the marine environment and ecosystems. In the Mediterranean, studies on the incidental catch of vulnerable species cover only a small portion of the total fishing activity. In addition, there are several important knowledge gaps for many types of fishing gear, and several countries and/or subregions, as well as on temporal scales, and only a few measures are in place that address the protection of vulnerable species. Monitoring programmes and surveys on incidental catches, which follow a harmonized methodology allowing for results to be compared across subregions, are necessary to improve knowledge on the issue and to subsequently support the identification of potential mitigation methods and tools, and relevant management measures. This publication and the methodology contained herein aim to provide a framework for the development and implementation of an efficient, standardized data collection and monitoring system for all vulnerable species encountered in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, namely elasmobranchs, marine mammals, seabirds, sea turtles, and macrobenthic invertebrates.
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    Non-indigenous species in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea 2021
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    Recent decades have seen significant changes in the biota of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea due to the introduction of non-indigenous species. Reliable scientific data on the dynamics of their distribution and abundance are essential to understand their ecological and economic effects. This review – in addition to providing images and descriptions of relevant species to aid in identification – presents a unique historical and regional perspective on these species’ impacts, based on many years’ worth of research. The Black Sea’s primary invaders come from the Mediterranean. Species like the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi have caused major declines in biodiversity in the region by crippling key segments of the food chain. Similar results have been noted in the Marmara Sea, a crucial water exchange point located between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. Infiltration into the Mediterranean comes from both the east and west – with Lessepsian species passing through the Suez Canal and fish and invertebrate species originating from the Atlantic expanding their ranges. As of the publication of this review, over 900 non-indigenous species have been reported in the Mediterranean and almost 300 in the Black Sea, with these numbers expected to rise in the future. Numerous Lessepsian fishes are commercially relevant and have been absorbed into local markets, particularly in the eastern Mediterranean region. While these species are targeted through various fishing techniques, many others are simply discarded due to a lack of value and there are even some, such as lionfishes, pufferfishes and several species of jellyfishes, that present immediate dangers to human health. Stewardship of native species, regional cooperation on the enforcement of legal measures, increased public awareness and the creation of marine protected areas are thus essential to minimize and reduce the impacts of non-indigenous species both in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
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    Incidental catch of vulnerable species in Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries - A review 2021
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    Bycatch – a term widely used to refer to part of the catch unintentionally caught during a fishing operation, in addition to target species, and consisting of the discards and incidental catch of vulnerable species – is considered one of the most important threats to the profitability and sustainability of fisheries, as well as to the conservation of the marine environment and ecosystems. Understanding the bycatch issue and adopting effective measures in order to reduce bycatch rates are essential steps towards minimizing the impacts on vulnerable species and ensuring both a sustainable fisheries sector and healthy seas. In the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, the incidental catch of vulnerable species – namely seabirds, sea turtles, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and macrobenthic invertebrates – represents one of several challenges for the industrial, semi-industrial and small-scale fisheries that coexist in the region, as well as for the diverse and sensitive ecosystems impacted. Typically, data on this issue have been collected in an opportunistic manner and in ways that make comparisons difficult. The annual absolute values of incidental catch of vulnerable species are not available: studies cover only a small portion of the total fishing activity and often present important knowledge gaps for many types of fishing gear, countries and/or subregions, as well as on temporal scales, for example, to establish reliable baselines. The result is that little is known of the scope of the problem, despite incidental catch being a significant pressure on the populations of vulnerable species, as well as a concern for fishers.This regional review is an attempt to compile, in one single document, all available data and historical records on the incidental catch of vulnerable species in the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries, obtained from existing literature, databases and other grey sources, and collated in a standardized and comparable way. The main objective is to provide comprehensive baseline information, earmark the main data gaps, as well as identify the most impacting types of fishing gear by taxonomic group. This work is a reminder of the importance of standardized data collection and the need to have baseline information in order to support decision-making in the identification of appropriate bycatch mitigation techniques, thus enabling analysis of their effectiveness and comparison over time and space, as well as facilitating the implementation of relevant conservation and/or management measures at the national, subregional and regional levels.

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