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Wildlife and H5N1 HPAI - Current Knowledge (July 2010)

FAO EMPRES Wildlife Unit Fact Sheet








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    Hpai Risk, Bio-Security and Smallholder Adversity 2006
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    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was first reported in Southeast Asia in late 2003, although the H5N1 virus is now considered to have emerged as early as 1996 when it was first identified in geese in Guangdong Province in southern China. Since then it has spread rapidly and over large distances, with outbreaks occurring in domesticated poultry and some wild bird populations in Mongolia, southern Russia, the Middle East and, in 2005, in Europe and Africa.
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    FAO ECTAD Laporan Tahunan 2013 2013
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    Poultry production, and its associated activities, account for around one percent of Indonesia’s gross domestic product and provide the majority of animal protein consumed by 232 million Indonesians. A complex array of poultry enterprises, ranging from intensive commercial enterprises, to small-scale semi-intensive broiler and layer enterprises, to small backyard flockssupply poultry meat and eggs to Indonesian consumers, predominantly through traditional markets countrywide. Some 60% of all I ndonesian households keep poultry for food, additional income, entertainment ceremonial purposes. Since Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) was detected in Indonesia in 2003, the disease has infected poultry in 32 out of 34 provinces, caused the deaths of millions of poultry, and disrupted the livelihoods of large numbers of people dependent on poultry keeping. Outbreaks continue to be reported regularly on islands with dense human and poultry populations, such as Java and Sumatra, and more sporadically in Sulawesi and Bali. Despite significantdecreases in the number of HPAI outbreaks reported since 2009, HPAI continues to present a major challenge to poultry production. An annualized poultry population of approximately 1.5 billion, a large culturally and ethnically diverse human population of around 232 million, a preference for purchasing poultry products from live bird markets, and a decentralized governance system, have all contributed to the persistence of the disease. Indone sia is the most recent country in Southeast Asia to report a new incursion of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 virus in 2012, confiming the continued risk of expansion of newly emerging virus clades from endemic areas to new areas and the need for countries at risk to maintain vigilance. This clade 2.3.2.1 virus spread rapidly from Java to Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi and is now fimly entrenched in Indonesia. Detections of H5 virus from environmental sampling of live bird markets in Jabodetabek in the second ha lf of 2013 show an increase in the number of markets evidencing environmental contamination. Both clade clade 2.1.3 and clade 2.3.2.1 viruses have been detected in environmental samples and are currently showing equal prevalence in Jabodetabek LBMs, indicating that both clades are co-circulating in the catchment areas of these poultry market chains. Co-circulation of both virus clades, causing outbreaks in both chicken and duck flocks, emphasises the need to review vaccination policy and the vac cine formulations which must be made available to poultry farmers to adequately protect their flocks. The Emergence of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) in China in April 2013 stresses the need for continuing surveillance for avian influenza viruses and provided an opportunity for an assessment of the risk of the introduction of this virus to Indonesia. Risk assessment and contingency planning for the introduction of emerging influenza viruses is now an on-going task of the DAH with support f rom FAO at both the country and regional levels. The FAO Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) Programme in Indonesia works to enhance the capacity and ability of the Government of Indonesia to implement its Avian Influenza Control Programme to sustainably control HPAI at village level, in the commercial poultry industry and along the market chain in order to help safeguard the health and livelihoods of the Indonesian population and reduce the global pandemic threat. Rabies is endemic in several parts of Indonesia. Bali had been rabies free until the disease was first confirmed in humans and in dogs in November 2008. FAO developed a Programme of three rabies projects with the DGLAHS, funded through the FAO Indonesia country programme, AusAID and USAID. The objectives of the Bali rabies control programme were to control rabies using a One Health approach targeting control in dogs and case management in humans through collaborative, cross-sectoral and multid isciplinary mechanisms progressing towards eventual elimination of the disease. The successful implementation of four mass dog vaccination campaigns in 2010-2013 has resulted in an impressive reduction in human rabies cases, with just one human case reported in 2013; a substantial reduction in dog cases has also occurred with only 40 cases recorded in 2013 compared to 120 in 2012. A new rabies project funded by WSPA, to support control and elimination of the disease in Flores and Lembata Islands , NTT Province, was agreed and signed by the DGLAHS in November and activities are now underway. This 2013 Annual Report provides an overview of the activities carried out under the ECTAD Programme in collaboration with and in support of the Ministry of Agriculture and local government livestock and animal health services in Indonesia to control both HPAI and rabies. Achievements in HPAI control across the key theme areas of strengthening veterinary services, capacity building, improving poultr y health, and public private partnerships are presented. Activities related to the rabies programme are presented under the strengthening veterinary services theme. The activities and achievements described in this report were funded by a number of donors and their contribution and commitment are gratefully acknowledged.
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    FAO ECTAD Laporan Tahunan 2014 2014
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    Poultry production, and its associated activities, account for around one percent of Indonesia’s gross domestic product and provide the majority of animal protein consumed by 232 million Indonesians. A complex array of poultry enterprises, ranging from intensive commercial enterprises, to small-scale semi-intensive broiler and layer enterprises, to small backyard flockssupply poultry meat and eggs to Indonesian consumers, predominantly through traditional markets countrywide. Some 60% of all I ndonesian households keep poultry for food, additional income, entertainment ceremonial purposes. Since Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) was detected in Indonesia in 2003, the disease has infected poultry in 32 out of 34 provinces, caused the deaths of millions of poultry, and disrupted the livelihoods of large numbers of people dependent on poultry keeping. Outbreaks continue to be reported regularly on islands with dense human and poultry populations, such as Java and Sumatra, and more sporadically in Sulawesi and Bali. Despite significantdecreases in the number of HPAI outbreaks reported since 2009, HPAI continues to present a major challenge to poultry production. An annualized poultry population of approximately 1.5 billion, a large culturally and ethnically diverse human population of around 232 million, a preference for purchasing poultry products from live bird markets, and a decentralized governance system, have all contributed to the persistence of the disease. Indone sia is the most recent country in Southeast Asia to report a new incursion of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 virus in 2012, confiming the continued risk of expansion of newly emerging virus clades from endemic areas to new areas and the need for countries at risk to maintain vigilance. This clade 2.3.2.1 virus spread rapidly from Java to Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi and is now fimly entrenched in Indonesia. Detections of H5 virus from environmental sampling of live bird markets in Jabodetabek in the second ha lf of 2013 show an increase in the number of markets evidencing environmental contamination. Both clade clade 2.1.3 and clade 2.3.2.1 viruses have been detected in environmental samples and are currently showing equal prevalence in Jabodetabek LBMs, indicating that both clades are co-circulating in the catchment areas of these poultry market chains. Co-circulation of both virus clades, causing outbreaks in both chicken and duck flocks, emphasises the need to review vaccination policy and the vac cine formulations which must be made available to poultry farmers to adequately protect their flocks. The Emergence of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) in China in April 2013 stresses the need for continuing surveillance for avian influenza viruses and provided an opportunity for an assessment of the risk of the introduction of this virus to Indonesia. Risk assessment and contingency planning for the introduction of emerging influenza viruses is now an on-going task of the DAH with support f rom FAO at both the country and regional levels. The FAO Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) Programme in Indonesia works to enhance the capacity and ability of the Government of Indonesia to implement its Avian Influenza Control Programme to sustainably control HPAI at village level, in the commercial poultry industry and along the market chain in order to help safeguard the health and livelihoods of the Indonesian population and reduce the global pandemic threat. Rabies is endemic in several parts of Indonesia. Bali had been rabies free until the disease was first confirmed in humans and in dogs in November 2008. FAO developed a Programme of three rabies projects with the DGLAHS, funded through the FAO Indonesia country programme, AusAID and USAID. The objectives of the Bali rabies control programme were to control rabies using a One Health approach targeting control in dogs and case management in humans through collaborative, cross-sectoral and multid isciplinary mechanisms progressing towards eventual elimination of the disease. The successful implementation of four mass dog vaccination campaigns in 2010-2013 has resulted in an impressive reduction in human rabies cases, with just one human case reported in 2013; a substantial reduction in dog cases has also occurred with only 40 cases recorded in 2013 compared to 120 in 2012. A new rabies project funded by WSPA, to support control and elimination of the disease in Flores and Lembata Islands , NTT Province, was agreed and signed by the DGLAHS in November and activities are now underway. This 2014 Annual Report provides an overview of the activities carried out under the ECTAD Programme in collaboration with and in support of the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services, Ministry of Agriculture and local government livestock and animal health services in Indonesia to control both HPAI and rabies. Achievements in HPAI control across the key theme areas of strengthe ning veterinary services, capacity building, improving poultry health, and public private partnerships are presented. Activities related to the rabies programme are presented under the strengthening veterinary services theme. The activities and achievements described in this report were funded by USAID and WAP, whose their contribution and commitment are gratefully acknowledged.

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