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The use of saline waters for crop production








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    Book (stand-alone)
    Crop water requirements 1992
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    This publication is intended to provide guidance in determining crop water requirements and their application in planning, design and operation of irrigation projects. Part 1.1 presents suggested methods to derive crop water requirements. The use of four well-known methods for determining such requirements is defined to obtain reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), which denotes the level of evapotranspiration for different climatic conditions. These methods are the Bla.ney- Criddl e, the Radiation, the Penman and Pan Evaporation methods, each requiring a different set of climatic data. To derive the evapotranspiration for a specific crop, relationships between crop evapotran.spiration (ETcrop) and reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) are given in Part I . 2 for different crops , stages of growth, length of growing season and prevailing climatic conditions. The effect of local conditions on crop water requirements is given in Part 1.3; this includes local va riation in climate, advection, soil water availability and agronomic and irrigation methods and practices . Calculation procedures are presented together with examples. A detailed discussion on selection and calibration of the preSented methodologies together with the data sources is given in Appendix II. A computer programme on applying the different methods is given in Appendix III. Part 11 discusses the application of crop water requirements data in irrigationproject planning, des ign and operation.. Part II. 1 deals v.rith deriving the field water balance, which in turn forms the basis for predicting season.al and peak irrigation supplies for general planning purposes. Attention is given to irrigation efficiency and water requirements for cultural practices and leaching of salts. In Part 11.2 methods are presented to arrive at field and scheme supply schedules with emphasis towards the field water balance and field irrigation management. Criteria are given fo r operating the canal system using different methods of water delivery, and for subsequent design parameters of the system. Suggestions are made in Part 11.3 on refinement of field and project supply schedules once the project is in operation. The presented guidelines are based on measured data and experience obtained covering a wide range of conditions. Local practical, technical, social a.nd economic considerations will, however, affect the planning criteria selected. Therefore c aution and a critical attitude should still be taken when applyin.g the presented methodology.
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    Project
    Rapid assessment study: Towards integrated planning of irrigation and drainage in Egypt, in support of the Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Project (IIIMP)
    Final Report 2005
    2005
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    Supporting capacity development for sustainable agricultural water management The International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID) is a multi-donor trust fund managed by the IPTRID Secretariat as a Special Programme of FAO. The Secretariat is located in the Land and Water Development division of FAO and draws on a worldwide network of leading centres of excellence in the field of irrigation, drainage and water resources management. IPTRID aims to support ca pacity development for sustainable agricultural water management to reduce poverty enhance food security and improve livelihoods, while conserving the environment. IPTRID provides advisory services and technical assistance to governments and funding institutions to stimulate increased and more effective investment, assisting in the formulation and implementation of capacity development strategies and programmes. IPTRID was created in 1990 by the World Bank and the United Nations Development Prog ramme (UNDP) in collaboration with the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID). First located at the World Bank in Washington, the IPTRID Secretariat was transferred in 1998 to the FAO in Rome. IPTRID is developing partnership with an increasing number of funding institutions and governments. During the last ten years, it has been supported by more than 20 international organizations and government agencies and has cooperated with more than 60 partners in about 40 developing c ountries and countries in transition. The present programme is co-financed by FAO, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Spain, the World Bank and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Tillage systems for soil and water conservation
    FAO Soils Bulletin No. 54
    1984
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    The increasing world population is resulting in intensified cropping of the limited areas of arable land to provide the necessary food in some countries. Unless effective conservation practices are used, such intensive cropping tends to increase the loss of soil and water resources. This trend must be reversed. The objectives of the Soils Bulletin are to present the principles and practices if tillage systems for sustained food production and to create an awareness of the need to conserve the world?s soil water energy resources for future generations. Although energy is an integral part of tillage systems, the emphasis is on soil and water conservation. This bulletin emphasizes tillage systems for developing countries, but relies heavily on principles that have been developed throughout the world. The need for more research on conservation tillage in developing countries is stressed.

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