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Using a conflict framework to identify the correct problem to manage









FAO and IUCN SSC HWCCSG. 2023. Using a conflict framework to identify the correct problem to manage. Rome.



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    Developing and evaluating a beehive fence deterrent through stakeholder involvement 2022
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    The case study comes from Kenya, the Elephants and Bees Project, which is part of Save the Elephants' Human-Elephant Coexistence Programme, based in Sagalla, next to Tsavo East National Park in southern Kenya. The case study highlights the process undertaken since 2001 to understand the effect honey bees had on elephants and to develop, evaluate and implement beehive fences at several sites in Kenya, from initial research-based studies on the effect of bees on elephants to the establishment of the Elephants and Bees Project. The project ensured that an evidence base for the beehive fence had been made to determine its functional efficacy while understanding the impacts in the region by elephants and the farmers' activity patterns meant it could be implemented correctly.The project worked with farmers who actively wanted to implement beehive fences. This was important as beehive fences require regular maintenance and they need the correct ecological components to be successful.
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    Understanding animal behaviour patterns for long-term solutions to human-wildlife conflict 2023
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    This case study deals with the problem of baboons causing damage to pine plantations in Zimbabwe. Traditional lethal control methods failed to provide a long-term solution, prompting a wildlife manager to study baboon behavior and identify the underlying causes. The damage was triggered by stress and anxiety resulting from the dense plantation canopies, disrupting baboons' home range boundaries. By targeting specific troops and individuals causing the damage and addressing the root drivers, the manager successfully stopped the damage in certain areas. Lessons learned emphasized the importance of addressing underlying drivers, using targeted management, and involving stakeholders to promote coexistence. Immediate success from lethal control hindered long-term solutions. Encouraging coexistence required changing attitudes and understanding the value of non-lethal approaches. The success of the approach relied on early engagement, addressing drivers, and implementing incentives or agreements to reduce triggering factors. The challenge of mainstreaming observation-based approaches without standard scientific protocols was noted. Overall, understanding animal behavior patterns proved effective in finding sustainable solutions to human-wildlife conflict.
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    Planning for human-wildlife coexistence 2023
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    The Projeto Onças do Iguaçu (Jaguars of Iguaçu Project) aims to protect the jaguar population in the Iguaçu National Park (INP) in Brazil and Iguazú National Park in Argentina, fostering coexistence with local communities. The planning for coexistence involved a stakeholder analysis, workshop, and structured approach. Using a Human-Wildlife Interaction (HWI) diagram, current interactions were categorized as conflict, overexploitation, nuisance, or coexistence. Scoping and goal-setting exercises defined the desired changes, targeting family farmers, increasing jaguar numbers, and shifting community attitudes. A system map identified causal relationships affecting interactions, revealing leverage points for intervention. A Theory of Change (ToC) outlined the sequence of events to achieve outcomes, guiding data collection for monitoring. Lessons learned included aligning actions with goals, conducting strategic planning before activities, involving staff with shared goals, and utilizing baseline data. The process fostered teamwork and ownership among project members. The planning process provided a clear roadmap for the project, promoting coexistence between people and jaguars while protecting the region's jaguar population.

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