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Tropical crop–livestock systems in conservation agriculture

The Brazilian experience








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    Book (stand-alone)
    Legume Trees and other Fodder Trees as Protein Sources for Livestock 1992
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    Fodder trees and fodder shrubs have always played a significant role in feeding domestic animals. In fact, trees and shrubs are increasingly recognized as important components of animal feeding, particularly as suppliers of protein and especially in harsh environmental conditions. In such situations, the available grazing is not generally sufficient to meet the maintenance requirements of animals, at least for part of the year. This occurs, for example, in some mountainous regions and in the dry tropicswhere the grazing is also sometimes very degraded. Thus, in extensive animal production systems in the dry areas of Africa, it is generallye stimated that ligneous materials contribute up to 90% of production and account for 40-50% of the total available feed. Such figures illustrate the existing and urgent need not only for better knowledge but also for better use of such potential, particularly in the context of environmental degradation which is affecting our planet. On the other ha nd, in the humid tropics of Latin America, the South-cast Asia and Africa, foddersfrom trees and shrubs from leguminous species - are beginning to be utilized more dietary nitrogen supplements for ruminants. In this respect, new a significant move to look for new sources of protein from shrubs. However, given the increasing demand for forage and availability of low quality basal feed materials which require protein supplementation, high protein fodders from leguminous trees and shrubs could have a much more significant role in animal feeding systems throughout the developing world. In this respect, there is a need for more research to develop technically viable solutions. These solutions must also be economically and socially acceptable; they must preserve natural resources and protect the environment. In other words, the challenge is the sustainable development of fodder trees and shrubs.........
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    Book (series)
    Using fodder from trees and shrubs to feed livestock in the tropics
    Better Farming Series, no. 42 (1994)
    1994
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    This illustrated manual teaches the farmer how to identify some common fodder trees and shrubs, how to grow fodder trees and shrubs, how to feed fodder from trees and shrubs to animals.
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    Document
    No-Tillage Farming for Sustainable Land Management: Lessons from the 2000 Brazil Study Tour
    Occasional Paper No. 12 - October 2001
    2001
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    In November 2000, the World Bank (WB) and the Brazilian Federation for Direct Planting into Crop Residue (FEBRAPDP) organized the third Study Tour on “Producer-Led Rural Organizations for Sustainable Land Management” (PRO-SLM), with particular emphasis on notillage systems (NT).1 The Study Tour followed a 10-day itinerary of over 1,000 km through Southern Brazil, covering Paraná and Santa Catarina States, two states which received WB support through land and micro-watershed management projects.< /p> This Paper presents the salient features of NT development in Southern Brazil and discusses the lessons learned with special reference to the scope for adapting and developing such production systems to Africa, in line with the Better Land Husbandry approach advocated through the Soil Fertility Initiative (SFI) in several African countries.In the context of this Paper, the term No-Tillage (NT) is used to describe the farming system studied in Brazil. NT has been an integral part of the ( micro)watershed management approach developed in the Southern Brazilian states of Paraná and Santa Catarina. NT was developed in response to continuously declining land productivity under “conventional” systems based on soil tillage. The underlying land management principles that led to the development of NT systems were to protect the soil surface from sealing by rainfall, to achieve and maintain an open internal soil structure, and to develop the means for safe disposal of any surface runoff t hat would nevertheless still occur. Consequently, the NT technical strategy was based on three essential farm practices, namely: (i) not tilling the soil; (ii) maintaining soil cover at all times; and (iii) using suitable crop rotations. All three practices must be followed if improved results are to be obtained in a sustainable fashion.

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