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Biosecurity and forests: an introduction with particular emphasis on forest pests








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    Document
    Forest Genetic Resources No 31 2004
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    The present issue of Forest Genetic Resources aims to present recent developments in the conservation, sustainable use and management of forest tree genetic diversity, from national, regional or global perspectives. Several articles describe techniques and methodologies used for the characterization, protection, conservation and management of important forest tree species and their genetic diversity, in Albania, Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Hawaii, Indonesia and West Africa. Other contributions addre ss tree breeding and improvement and domestication issues, including preliminary testing of neem provenances in Ethiopia, and a concept paper of a founder project to mark the domestication baseline for forest trees. An article discusses the issues faced at the field level during the implementation of an interdisciplinary and participatory genetic conservation project, through case studies in Argentina and Brazil. This issue of Forest Genetic Resources also explores a number of emerging issues cl osely associated with the forest genetic resources field. Special emphasis is given to Biosecurity, which describes the concept, objective and process of managing biological risks. An article discusses its relevance to the forestry sector. Biological risks, which were traditionally associated with forest health and phytosanitary concerns, also encompass risks associated with the introduction of new tree species and genotypes. Recent concerns over the spread of introduced trees species outside th eir cultivated areas have the potential to influence the movement and use of tree germplasm, and highlight the importance of carefully testing and monitoring introduced tree species. A summary is provided of a regional evaluation of woody invasive species in four countries and territories of the Western Indian Ocean.
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    Book (series)
    Improving biosecurity through prudent and responsible use of veterinary medicines in aquatic food production 2012
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    The current trend towards increasing intensification and diversification of global aquaculture has lead to its dramatic growth, thus making aquaculture an important food-producing sector that provides an essential source of aquatic protein for a growing human population. For both developed and developing countries, the sector is recognized as creator of jobs and an important source of foreign export earnings. The expansion of commercial aquaculture, as is the case in commercial livestock and pou ltry production, has necessitated the routine use of veterinary medicines to prevent and treat disease outbreaks due to pathogens, assure healthy stocks and maximize production. The expanded and occasionally irresponsible global movements of live aquatic animals have been accompanied by the transboundary spread of a wide variety of pathogens that have sometimes caused serious damage to aquatic food productivity and resulted in serious pathogens becoming endemic in culture systems and the natura l aquatic environment. The use of appropriate antimicrobial treatments is one of the most effective management responses to emergencies associated with infectious disease epizootics. However, their inappropriate use can lead to problems related to increased frequency of bacterial resistance and the potential transfer of resistance genes in bacteria from the aquatic environment to other bacteria. Injudicious use of antimicrobials has also resulted in the occurrence of their residues in aquacultur e products, and as a consequence, bans by importing countries and associated economic impacts, including market loss have occurred. Since disease emergencies can happen even in well-managed aquaculture operations, careful planning on the use antimicrobials is essential in order to maximize their efficacy and minimize the selection pressure for increased frequencies of resistant variants. The prudent and responsible use of veterinary medicines is an essential component of successful commercial aq uaculture production systems. The FAO/AAHRI Expert Workshop on Improving Biosecurity through Prudent and Responsible Use of Veterinary Medicines in Aquatic Food Production was convened in Bangkok, Thailand from 15 to 18 December 2009, in order to understand the current status of the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture and to discuss the concerns and impacts of their irresponsible use on human health, the aquatic environment and trade. Such discussions became the basis for drafting recommenda tions targeted to the state and private sectors and for developing guiding principles on the responsible use of antimicrobials in aquaculture that will be part of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Technical Guidelines on Prudent and Responsible Use of Veterinary Medicines in Aquaculture. Since aquaculture is expected to continue to increase its contribution to the world¿s production of aquatic food, offer opportunities to alleviate poverty, increase employment and community de velopment and reduce overexploitation of natural aquatic resources, appropriate guidance to aquaculture stakeholders on the responsible use of veterinary medicines has become essential. Safe and effective veterinary medicines need to be available for efficient aquaculture production, and their use should be in line with established principles on prudent use to safeguard public and animal health. The use of such medicines should be part of national and on-farm biosecurity plans and in accordance with an overall national policy for sustainable aquaculture. This publication is presented in two parts: Part 1 contains 15 technical background papers presented during the expert workshop, contributed by 28 specialists and which served as a basis for the expert workshop deliberations; Part 2 contains the highlights of the expert workshop.
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    Project
    Strengthening Capacities to Address Climate Change Impacts on Biosecurity and Food Security in Fiji, Samoa and Solomon Islands - TCP/SAP/3704 2023
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    The project achieved all expected outcomes to a satisfactory level despite delays caused by COVID-19 restrictions, leading to two no-cost extensions. In all, the project contributed to increased knowledge on addressing climate change and transboundary/invasive species pressures on food security in the Pacific Islands by producing one pre-feasibility study, one concept note and one PowerPoint presentation. The pre-feasibility/technical study report focused on the correlation between climate change, transboundary/invasive species and their impacts on food security in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. The study collected scientific evidence from regional and national organizations and highlighted concrete examples of transboundary movement of pests and diseases and their impacts at the national level. The report also analysed past and current climate-smart agriculture projects and included an environmental and social assessment, but not the economic and financial implications assessment that was originally stipulated. Additionally, this study also connected impacts associated with El Niño to outbreaks of pests and diseases in the Pacific Islands. The original concept note to be presented to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) was revised using information collected from the technical studies and technical inputs from both FAO and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). The SPC, as the Accredited Entity for the (GCF) project, has taken charge of the project and is responsible for submitting the updated concept note to the GCF Secretariat for review. FAO, as the Executing Entity, will continue working with SPC to formally submit the concept note to the GCF, address any comments and jointly develop the full project proposal for the GCF Board.

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