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Understanding animal behaviour patterns for long-term solutions to human-wildlife conflict









FAO and IUCN SSC HWCCSG. 2023. Understanding animal behaviour patterns for long-term solutions to the human-wildlife conflict. Rome.



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    Document
    Making moves from conflict to coexistence
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Wildlife is a common asset, but its negative value, such as human-wildlife conflict (HWC), is overshadowing its positive values linked to conservation and local development perspectives. HWC arises from a combination of anthropogenic activities (such as unprecedented expansion of human settlements, unsuitable land use practices and other human activities) as well as problematic behaviour of certain wildlife species. It not only causes severe implications for livelihoods of local/indigenous communities sharing the same habitat as wild animals, but also hurdles the success of conservation initiatives. Hence, there needs to be found a balance between human needs (safety, wellbeing, food security, etc.) and wildlife welfare in order to move from a logic of conflict to co-existence. This behaviour change requires a global and holistic approach. To achieve this, a mitigation framework has to take the strong temporal and spatial dynamics of HWC into-account, while also considering the needs and expectations of affected people as well as the wild species with which they share their habitat. Based on a decision support system approach, its design combines short and long-term intervention measures, providing guidance on how to combine practical solutions to avoid and minimize risky situations, while reducing and offsetting the cost of co-existing with wildlife. At community level, the challenge remains to build a collective vision on how to co-exist with wildlife based on a locally designed mitigation strategy. This is achieved by the design of a new application; its off-line use enabling an iterative field-based step-by-step approach: understanding the local situation (diagnostic phase), co-developing mitigation strategies based on traditional knowledge (strategy design phase), facilitating the monitoring and evaluation based on impact measure, hence enabling a collaborative learning process for adaptive management. Keywords: Conflict, Biodiversity conservation, Adaptive and integrated management, Monitoring and data collection, Social protection ID: 3487270
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    Poster, banner
    Making moves from conflict to coexistence
    Sustainable Wildlife Management (SWM) Programme
    2021
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    The Sustainable Wildlife Management (SWM) Programme aims to reconcile the challenges of wildlife conservation with food security and rural socio-economic development. To meet this objective, an innovative behaviour change approach is being developed to address human–wildlife conflict (HWC) and create a more balanced coexistence between people and wild animals. This holistic SWM Programme approach is based on an HWC mitigation framework that: • takes into account the strong temporal and spatial dynamics of HWC in a landscape; • considers the needs and expectations of affected people as well as the wild species with which they share the habitat; • adopts a decision support system to select a suite of both short- and long-term intervention measures; and • provides guidance on practical solutions to avoid and minimize risk, while reducing and offsetting the cost of coexisting with wildlife. The SWM Programme is working in 15 countries, namely Botswana, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Gabon, Guyana, Madagascar, Mali, Namibia, Papua New Guinea, Republic of the Congo, Senegal, Sudan, Zambia and Zimbabwe. This approach is currently being tested in Gabon, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Planning for human-wildlife coexistence 2023
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    The Projeto Onças do Iguaçu (Jaguars of Iguaçu Project) aims to protect the jaguar population in the Iguaçu National Park (INP) in Brazil and Iguazú National Park in Argentina, fostering coexistence with local communities. The planning for coexistence involved a stakeholder analysis, workshop, and structured approach. Using a Human-Wildlife Interaction (HWI) diagram, current interactions were categorized as conflict, overexploitation, nuisance, or coexistence. Scoping and goal-setting exercises defined the desired changes, targeting family farmers, increasing jaguar numbers, and shifting community attitudes. A system map identified causal relationships affecting interactions, revealing leverage points for intervention. A Theory of Change (ToC) outlined the sequence of events to achieve outcomes, guiding data collection for monitoring. Lessons learned included aligning actions with goals, conducting strategic planning before activities, involving staff with shared goals, and utilizing baseline data. The process fostered teamwork and ownership among project members. The planning process provided a clear roadmap for the project, promoting coexistence between people and jaguars while protecting the region's jaguar population.

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