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    Assessment of depredation level in Reunion Island pelagic longline fishery based on information from self-reporting data sampling programme 2013
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    Depredation attracts broad intertiol attention during recent decades with worldwide expansion of fishing by passive gears, in particular pelagic and bottom longlines. Presumed steady increase of depredation level from the early years of fisheries to present (IOTC, 2000a, Donoghue et al., 2003, Gilman et al., 2007) and economic losses associated with this type of interaction (IOTC, 1999, 2000a, Bargain, 2000, 2001; Nishida, Tanio, 2001, Rabearisoa, 2012) were major concerns. Depredation is usuall y defined as “the partial or complete removal of hooked fish or bait from fishing gear...” by predators such as cetaceans, sharks, bone fish, birds, squids, crustaceans and others” distinguishing it from predation, i.e. “the taking of free swimming fish (or other organisms)...” (Donoghue et al., 2003; Gilman et al., 2006, 2007). Depredation mostly occur in statiory (passive) gears like pelagic and bottom longlines (Kock et al., 1996; Gilman et al., 2006, 2008), gillnets (Read et al., 2003), trap s, line fisheries (de Stephanis, 2004; Navarro, Bearzi, 2007) and within aquaculture facilities (Stickley et al., 1992; Coon, 1996; Glahn et al., 1999; Fenech et al., 2004; Kloskowski, 2005). However highly mobile fisheries like trolling, trawl and purse seine are also sometimes subject to depredation (often mixed with scavenging) by marine mammals (Zollett, Read, 2006, Zahri et al., 2004), squids (Olson et al., 2006), birds (Baker et al., 2007) or sharks (our unpublished data). Longline fishing operations suffered probably the most from depredation due to its worldwide distribution, statiory ture, long exposure (hours) in the environment, easy access to animal caught and gear fragility. Possible altertion of predators behaviour resulted from interactions with fishing gears was also suggested based on fact of depredation itself and different reaction to fishing gear among populations of the same species (Matkin et al., 2007). If alteration of predators? behaviour is really take place, potential wide impact on ecosystem scale might be envisaged. Depredation occurrence and respective losses of catch are usually not reported in the fisheries statistics and are a source of „cryptic mortality? that is not accounted for in current stock assessment studies, therefore affecting directly fisheries magement decisions and practice (Gilman et al., 2007, Romanov et al., 2007). Economic losses due to catch and gear damage have brought serious concerns to fishermen (Yano, Dahlheim, 1994; Ni shida, Tanio, 2001; Donoghue et al., 2003; Rabearisoa, 2012) while harm to marine megafau either through interactions with fishing gears or with fishermen who attempts to protect their catch (Gulland, 1986; Read, 2008) rises conservation issues. There is an obvious and urgent need for close monitoring of the depredation phenomenon, its quantification, incorporation into the fisheries magement schemes and development of mitigation measures. Here we report prelimiry results of depredation affectin g the local longline fishery operated from Reunion Island, basing on information from self-reporting data collection programme.
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    《2022年世界森林状况》是在《关于森林和土地利用的格拉斯哥领导人宣言》和140个国家承诺到2030年消除森林损失,并支持恢复和促进可持续林业的背景下编写的。报告探讨了三个森林途径在实现绿色复苏和解决多重地球危机(包括气候变化和生物多样性丧失)方面的潜力。 三个相互关联的森林途径是:遏制毁林和维护森林;恢复退化土地和扩大农林业;可持续利用森林和构建绿色价值链。平衡、同步地实施这些途径,可以为各国及其农村社区创造可持续的社会和经济效益,有助于以可持续的方式应对全球不断增长的材料需求,并解决环境挑战。 《2022年世界森林状况》为三种森林途径的可行性和价值提供了依据,并概述了为进一步实施这些途径可采取的初步措施。时不我待,我们必须立即采取行动,将全球升温幅度控制在1.5℃以内,降低未来发生大流行病的风险,确保所有人都能获得充足且富有营养的粮食,消除贫困, 保护地球上现存的生物多样性,并使年轻人拥有一个未来世界会更美好的希望。
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    Promoting Healthy Diets through Nutrition Education and Changes in the Food Environment: an International Review of Actions and their Effectiveness
    Background Paper for the International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2)
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    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), of the 57 million global deaths in 2008, 36 million, or 63%, were due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), principally ca rdiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and chronic respiratory diseases (WHO, 2011a). Nearly 80% of these deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. Deaths from NCDs are projected to continue to rise worldwide, with the greatest increases expected in low- and middle-income regions. An unhealthy diet i s one of the key risk factors for NCDs. For example, inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetables increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and several cancers; high salt consumption is an important determinant of high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and increases the risk of stomach cancer; high consumption of saturated fats and trans-fatty acids is linked to heart disease; a range of dietary factors have been linked with diabetes; red and processed meat consumption is linked with some cancers (WHO, 2003; Steyn et al., 2004; WCRF, 2007). In addition, excessive energy intake leads to overweight and obesity, which is linked with a range of health problems, including NCDs (WHO, 2000). Diabetes has particularly strong associations with obesity (Steyn et al., 2004), and evidence shows associations between body fatness and some leading cancers (WCRF, 2007). The WHO estimates that 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese (WHO, 2011a). The prevalence of overweight is highest in upper-middle-income countries but very high levels are also reported from some lower-middle income countries in Europe, the Middle East and the Americas, and it is reported to be rising throughout low- and middle-income countries.Since the FAO/WHO International Conference of Nutrition in 1992, unhealthy eating patterns have been increasing around the world. For example, fat intake has been rising rapidly in lower -middle-income countries since the 1980s (WHO, 2011a). Between 1992 and 2007, a disproportionate amount of the per capita increase in calorie availability1 came from sugar and meat (Mazzocchi et al., 2012). Patterns of eating have also changed, with an increase in snacking, skipping meals, eating meals out of a family setting, and eating out of the home.

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