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Future prospects for fish and fishery products









Westlund, L. Future prospects for fish and fishery products. 5. Forecasting fish consumption and demand analysis: a literature review. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 972/5. Rome, FAO. 2005. 17p.


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    Report of the Expert Workshop on the Development and Use of Indicators for an Ecosystem approach to fisheries. Rome, 20-24 April 2009. 2011
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    The Expert Workshop on the development and use of indicators for an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) was held in Rome from 20 to 24 April 2009 under the EAF-Nansen project (Strengthening the Knowledge Base for and Implementing an Ecosystem Approach to Marine Fisheries in Developing Countries). It was attended by 13 participants from Africa, Europe, Australia and Oceania, North America and FAO. The main objectives of the expert workshop were to identify suitable indicators for fish eries management, discuss the properties of these indicators, and provide advice on methodologies for the derivation, integration/aggregation and visualization of the indicators. Emphasis was placed on applicability of the derived indicators in developing countries and/or data-poor situations. It was noted that in spite of the abundance of indicators for fisheries management in the scientific literature, there is limited practical guidance as regards their relevance and cost-effectiv eness. In preparation for the expert workshop, three expert reviews were commissioned by FAO to establish what relevant indicators are available for EAF, their properties, and whether/where they have been used. Each review was intended to provide a structured assessment of available indicators for fisheries management classified in accordance with the hierarchical tree framework for identifying major issues in fisheries. For each indicator, an assessment of its properties in relation to data availability, practicality, cost-effectiveness, comprehension, acceptability by stakeholders, and robustness was made. The adopted definition for an Indicator was taken as ¿Something that is measured (not necessarily numerically) and used to track an operational objective¿ and it was noted that any indicator that does not relate to an operational objective is not useful in this context. The participants concluded that the three background papers provided an excellent starting point for an FAO Technical Paper on the development and use of indicators in EAF. A case study of the Tanzanian mixed coastal fishery was used to test whether the list of indicators was flexible enough to cover various situations (data rich/poor, high/low capacity, etc.) and how the trigger and reference points would differ depending on the objectives of each fishery. Using the indicators provided in the three reviews and the Tanzanian case study, the workshop defined a list of prior ity indicators. The workshop was also informed on the IndiSeas (Indicators for the Seas) Programme, a EUR-OCEANS European Network of Excellence working group to gather and share indicator expertise across marine ecosystems and member institutions. Information was also received on a programme on incorporating the human dimension to the ecosystem approach to fisheries, and specifically on indicators for supply elasticity. It was noted that there are several areas where these projects c ould be linked with benefits to parties. The participants agreed on a roadmap for further development and refinement of the derived indicators as inputs for the FAO Technical Paper and to organize a special workshop on indicators for ecosystem surveys using research vessels. It was also agreed to develop a template for reporting on the implementation of EAF for inclusion within the reporting on the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF).
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    Fiscal reform in Costa Rica
    Price elasticities of major food categories to inform decision-making
    2023
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    In the context of fiscal reform in Costa Rica (value added tax revision), the definition of a new basic tax basket – canasta básica tributaria (CBT), incorporating nutritional criteria is underway in the country. In this study, price elasticities of major food categories were analysed using a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) model and data from the 2018 National Survey of Household Income and Expenditures – Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares (ENIGH). Measuring price elasticities is essential because it allows: knowing the extent to which food demand reacts to price changes, anticipating changes in the quantities demanded as a result of fiscal policy changes, measuring potential substitution and complementary effects between food groups, and potential nutritional effects of fiscal policies. As a result, it helps to provide recommendations on the content of a CBT with nutritional criteria. Results show that the food categories with the most elastic demand are “bread and cereals”, "mineral waters, soft drinks and juices" and “milk, cheese and eggs”. Substitution effects exist between the following groups: “fruits” and “oils and fats”, “fruits” and “bread and cereals”, and between “milk, cheese and eggs” and “oils and fats”. For this last food category and for the one which includes sweets and chocolates, the consumption decreases when the price of “bread and cereals” increases. They are complementary goods. These relations between food groups need to be considered when defining a national CBT with nutritional criteria, and with the objective of promoting the consumption of healthier food groups while disincentivizing the consumption of the unhealthy ones. Lastly, it is important that the consumption of the healthiest foods within each food group be fiscally promoted.
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    Project
    Socio-economics and Gender in Aquaculture 1998
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    The gender and socio-economic roles of men and women in different forms of Lao aquaculture (pond, rice-cum-fish, mini-hatchery) have not been widely investigated. This socio-economic and gender analysis study of Lao aquaculture was conducted in five Lao provinces within the scope of the UNDP/FAO project Lao/97/007. The Lao PDR population is predominantly involved in agricultural activities and increasing food security and income levels of poorer farmers of all ethnic groups are key priorities. T he rural Lao PDR population depend primarily on rice cultivation coupled to a wide variety of other agricultural (pigs, poultry, buffalo etc) and wild food foraging activities for their food security. Both captured and cultivated fish is widely consumed and commands a premium price in markets. Easy access to fish for the family is one of the main reasons for both women's and men's interest in raising fish in Lao PDR. It is considered that there is a potential for increasing the scale and efficie ncy of aquaculture activities in Lao PDR. However, in most rural areas visited in Lao PDR during the study, aquaculture is considered as a side activity integrated with other agricultural activities. There are good opportunities to further integrate aquaculture into existing agricultural livelihood systems. The majority of men and women fish farmers interviewed conducted aquaculture primarily for household food security, with income generation as an added bonus only where surplus fish were produced. Fish production for food security is considered to require low labour intensity once established. There are high levels of interest among women farmers towards aquaculture. However there are high labour and financial entry costs for pond based aquaculture, which only some farmers may be able to sustain. Income generation from fish production may also incur higher labour demand. Both women and men are involved in aquaculture, although each may have different roles at different st ages of the fish production cycle. There are few cultural constraints to women's participation in most aquaculture activities. In Lao PDR men select the site for pond construction and as heads of households are regarded as owners of ponds. While men often make the major decisions concerning the production system, the production from ponds also depends on the time and effort allocated by women and children for pond management and for feeding of the fish. Men are responsible for harvesting the ove rall yield; women are often responsible for harvesting fish for household consumption. Women control the cash income from the selling of fish at the pond site and in the market, although consultation with their husbands on household expenditure is common. Income distribution within the household is relatively equitable, so income generated from aquaculture is likely to benefit entire households. Older women (over 40) may be more suitable for involvement in aquaculture activities. Only experience d (e.g. > 3 years) and relatively better off men and women farmers are likely to be able to engage in mini-hatchery enterprises.

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