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Socio-Economic Assessment and Economic Valuation of Egypt’s Mangroves

Rehabilitation, Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Mangroves in Egypt









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    Community-Based Mangrove Rehabilitation and Ecotourism Development and Management in the Red Sea Coast, Egypt
    Rehabilitation, Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Mangroves in Egypt
    2004
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    Mangroves produce a number of very valuable ecological benefits. However, these benefits are largely intangible and do not provide income or revenue for the managers of the mangroves or for other stakeholders living in and around them. Therefore, they are often considered as “wasteland” rather than as highly prized ecosystems. In order to capture the interest and understanding of all stakeholders in and around mangroves, it is important to try to convert some of this intangible ecological v alue into a monetary value. One way in which this can be done is through the development of ecotourism in the mangroves. Ecotourism can provide considerable benefits to the environment, local stakeholders, visitors to the mangroves and the agencies responsible for the management of the mangroves. With thorough planning and careful consideration of the economic, environmental and cultural aspects of such developments, ecotourism can contribute to conservation, education, resource protection and t he involvement and empowerment of local people. In addition to the development of ecotourism, the development of other income generating activities in and around mangroves can also contribute to the protection of the mangroves and improve the lives of local stakeholders.
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    A Sub-regional Analysis of the Socio-Economic situation of the Eastern Mediterranean Fisheries 2016
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    Within the framework of the FAO EastMed project, a Working Group on the socio-economic analysis of the fisheries sector in the Eastern Mediterranean was conducted in Athens, Greece from the 2-6 of November 2015. The goal of the working group was to contribute to the understanding of the socio-economic situation of fishing fleets in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, with a view to support economic advice in fisheries management. This report is the result of the working group and compares selec ted fisheries socio-economic indicators, including harvesting cost structure and profitability of main fleet segments. During the working group data was compiled from the Eastern Mediterranean, including Cyprus, Egypt, Palestine (Gaza Strip), Greece, Italy (Ionian Sea), Lebanon and Turkey. For the EU countries the data derived from the EU Data Collection Framework (2010/93/EU) was used, while for the non-EU areas the data was derived from the socio-economic surveys which are currently being co nducted within the framework of the FAO EastMed project. Data from Turkey was derived from the Turkish Statistical Institute. The data collected by both the EU and non-EU areas follow a comparable standard methodology, and using these data sets, socio-economic indicators were estimated and compared among countries and fleet segments in the region. The economic performance of 25 fleet segments from the seven areas mentioned above were analyzed and compared for the year 2012. The fisheries secto r in the region including the Black Sea Turkish production, produced a total of 581 thousand tons of seafood with an estimated value of $1.6 billion. The fishing fleet directly employed 80,017 people on a full-time basis working onboard 40,436 vessels. According to the data presented in this report, the value added generated by fisheries made up 0.05% of the total GDP generated in the region, employing less than 1% of the labour force. However, in the coastal communities of the region it repre sented an important source of employment, income and a highly valuable source of animal protein. In terms of profitability, the best performances were showed in Egypt, Lebanon and Italy, while the worst performance was found in Gaza Strip, where the activity was not profitable. In the vast majority of the fleet segments analysed, crew members are paid with a share system where the running costs are subtracted from the revenues before allocating the shares to the crew members and to the owner. Th e salary per fisher compared to the minimum wage of the manufacturing sector, was lower in Gaza and Lebanon, and higher in Egypt. The ratio of energy costs to operating costs showed the highest value in the fleets operating in Gaza, where energy costs are at an unsustainable level, which is detrimental with respect to the salaries of the workers and the remuneration of the investments. The fuel efficiency showed the highest values in Turkey, and the lowest in Italy where all the fleet segments s cored an extremely low value. The comparison of the breakdown of the cost factors showed that labour and energy were in general the primary costs associated with fishing, although their proportion varies among countries, depending on many factors, such as the fleet structure, the harvesting methods and the fuel subsidies/taxes. In general, vessels using active fishing gears (i.e. trawlers) are more dependent on fuel and have the energy costs accounting for a larger proportion of the operational costs while, for the artisanal vessels using passive gears, labour represents the larger proportion of the operational costs. Salaries can absorb as much as half of the total operating costs in small-scale fisheries, with the exceptions of Gaza and Turkey where the labour costs were below 20%.
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    Artisanal fisheries income diversification study: eco-tourism and recreational fisheries 2012
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    1. The income diversification study focusing on eco-tourism and recreational fisheries was completed between December 2011 and March 2012. 2. The consultant, Mr Simon Diffey, visited four case-study countries in the ESA-IO regionduring December 2011 and January 2012 - Pemba Island, Zanzibar; Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe; Ile Sainte Marie, Madagascar and Rodrigues Island, Mauritius. 3. The state of the recreational fishery and aquatic related ecotourism industry is highly variable in the countries visit ed – from emerging in Pemba Island to highly developed (but in recent years under-utilised) on Lake Kariba. 4. Ile Sainte Marie and Rodrigues Island have a generally well developed tourism sector with potential for developing more marine/fisheries related eco-tourism. 5. The study concludes that there is a general lack of readily available data (in-country) on the value of and participation in recreational fisheries and associated aquatic related eco-tourism activities. Economic research on the value of some of these eco-tourism related industries is recommended to help inform the policy decision making process and improve sector governance. 6. Landings in the artisanal sector are generally in decline due to over-fishing with limited control in most countries visited. There is therefore need for fisheries MCS capacity building within the artisanal sector in all of the countries visited. Support for strengthening community based enforcement is recommended. 7. Further research is needed on the use of FADs (and artificial reefs) to potentially move artisanal fishing effort offshore and support recreational fisheries development. 8. Both Pemba Island and Ile Sainte Marie are in need for FADs. Lessons can be learnt from existing FAD operations around Rodrigues Island. 9. There is a need for awareness-raising of environmental issues amongst the fisher communities. This is particularly the case when introducing new technology or techniques to fishing communities. 10. Future project interventions should be sensitive to the involvement of women in fisheries and the cultural norms that can be expected in each country. 11. Sector study research is needed to improve development planning and governance issues. The recent VCA work completed on Rodrigues Island should be repeated in other areas of the region. 12. The study recommends supporting existing eco-tourism related projects or projects already conceived but not yet funded (rather than conceiving new projects) 13. Five proj ect concept notes are recommended for funding: • A socio-economic project on Pemba Island (provisional budget €13,259) • Two EIAs for aquaculture projects on Lake Kariba (€10,086 and €5,827 respectively) • A sport fishery economic research project on Lake Kariba (€6,595) • An agro-tourism project on Ile Sainte Marie, which has potential to include marine eco-tourism related activities (€16,210) 14. Outline ToR has been prepared for an economic research consultancy focusing on the whale-watching industry around Ile Sainte Marie (28 person-days of input) and for a fisheries eco-tourism capacity building (business planning) input on Rodrigues Island (22 person-days of input). 15. The proposed economic research on the Lake Kariba sport fishery could be broadened and a VCA for the whole sector prepared. Alternativelythe research on the economics of the sport fishery could be combined with the proposed valuation of the whale-watching industry (on Ile Sainte Marie). 16. A detailed alternative livelihoods action plan has been prepared for the SEMPA region on Rodrigues Island. There are some short term priority objectives within this action plan that the SmartFish Programme could support. 17. A one-year alternative livelihoods project proposal has been prepared for the SEMPA region on Rodrigues Island and submitted to GEF for funding (total project costs €43,537 of which the funding requested was €35,521). Funding for this project should be considered if this project has not yet been launched. 18. Linkages to the MCS and governance components of the SmartFish Programme were identified which merit further investigation.

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