FAO Knowledge Repository BETA

The FAO Knowledge Repository is FAO's official open repository, providing access to all of its publications. Through its open access policy, FAO seeks to increase the dissemination of its knowledge and to contribute to the scientific and technical impact of the Organization. 

 

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    Book (series)
    Respecting free, prior and informed consent
    Practical guidance for governments, companies, NGOs, indigenous peoples and local communities in relation to land acquisition
    2014
    Improving governance of tenure is the objective of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (Guidelines), which serve as a reference and set out principles and internationally accepted standards for responsible practices. The Guidelines state that responsible investments should do no harm, safeguard against dispossession of legitimate tenure right holders and environmental damage, and should respect human rights. This technical guide on Respecting free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) sets out practical actions for government agencies to respect and protect FPIC and for civil society organizations, land users and private investors globally to comply with their responsibilities in relation to FPIC, as endorsed by the Guidelines.
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    Book (series)
    Compulsory acquisition of land and compensation 2008
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    Compulsory acquisition is the power of government to acquire private rights in land without the willing consent of the owner or occupant in order to benefit society and is often necessary for social and economic development and the protection of the natural environment. The exercise of these powers is frequently contentious and problematic. The guide explains what compulsory acquisition and compensation are, and what constitutes good practice in this area, examining the consequences of poor legi slation, procedures and implementation. It is likely to be of most use in countries that are seeking to understand good practice in this area and to improve their own legislation, procedures and implementation in compulsory purchase and compensation in the interests of society as a whole.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Free Prior and Informed Consent: An indigenous peoples’ right and a good practice for local communities 2016

    This Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) Manual is designed as a tool for project practitioners of a broad range of projects and programmes of any development organization, by providing information about the right to FPIC and how it can be implemented in six steps.

    In an FPIC process, the “how”, “when” and “with and by whom”, are as important as “what” is being proposed. For an FPIC process to be effective and result in consent or lack of it, the way in which the process is conducted is paramount. The time allocated for the discussions among the indigenous peoples, the cultural appropriateness of the way the information is conveyed, and the involvement of the whole community, including key groups like women, the elderly and the youth in the process, are all essential. A thorough and well carried FPIC process helps guarantee everyone’s right to self-determination, allowing them to participate in decisions that affect their lives.

    This FPIC Manual will ena ble field practitioners to incorporate FPIC into project and programmes’ design and implementation, ensuring that indigenous peoples’ rights are duly respected. FPIC can be considered the “gold standard” because it allows for the highest form of participation of local stakeholders in development projects.

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    Book (series)
    The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2023
    Urbanization, agrifood systems transformation and healthy diets across the rural–urban continuum
    2023
    This report provides an update on global progress towards the targets of ending hunger (SDG Target 2.1) and all forms of malnutrition (SDG Target 2.2) and estimates on the number of people who are unable to afford a healthy diet. Since its 2017 edition, this report has repeatedly highlighted that the intensification and interaction of conflict, climate extremes and economic slowdowns and downturns, combined with highly unaffordable nutritious foods and growing inequality, are pushing us off track to meet the SDG 2 targets. However, other important megatrends must also be factored into the analysis to fully understand the challenges and opportunities for meeting the SDG 2 targets. One such megatrend, and the focus of this year’s report, is urbanization. New evidence shows that food purchases in some countries are no longer high only among urban households but also among rural households. Consumption of highly processed foods is also increasing in peri-urban and rural areas of some countries. These changes are affecting people’s food security and nutrition in ways that differ depending on where they live across the rural–urban continuum. This timely and relevant theme is aligned with the United Nations General Assembly-endorsed New Urban Agenda, and the report provides recommendations on the policies, investments and actions needed to address the challenges of agrifood systems transformation under urbanization and to enable opportunities for ensuring access to affordable healthy diets for everyone.
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    Book (series)
    The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2024
    Blue Transformation in action
    2024
    The 2024 edition of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture features the Blue Transformation in action, illustrated by activities and initiatives, led by FAO in collaboration with Members, partners and key stakeholders, to integrate aquatic foods into global food security and sustainability, enhance policy advocacy, scientific research and capacity building, disseminate sustainable practices and technological innovations, and support community involvement. Part 1 of this edition of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture benefits from significant improvements in data collection, analytical and assessment tools and methodologies to present the most up-to-date review of world fisheries and aquaculture production and utilization. Part 2 highlights the role of FAO and its partners to catalyse the transformational changes required to support aquaculture expansion and intensification, effective management of global fisheries and upgrading of aquatic value chains. Part 3 covers the high-impact challenges and opportunities of the untapped potential of utilizing whole fish and by-products to improve food security and nutrition, expounds on the role of aquatic food systems in providing critical climate, biodiversity and environmentally sound solutions, and highlights the importance of their integration into national and multilateral processes. It also presents an outlook on future trends up to 2032 based on projections. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2024 provides the most up-to-date and evidence-based information, supporting policy, scientific and technical insights on challenges, opportunities and innovations shaping the present and future of the sector, for the benefit of a wide and expanding audience of policymakers, managers, scientists, fishers, farmers, traders, civil society activists and consumers.

Recently added

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    Book (stand-alone)
    L'état des ressources zoogénétiques pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture dans le monde 2008
    La gestion raisonnée de la biodiversité de l’agriculture dans le monde devient un défi toujours plus grand pour la communauté internationale. Le secteur de l’élevage en particulier subit des changements dramatiques avec l’augmentation de la production à grande échelle, en réponse à la demande croissante d’œufs, de lait et de viande. Il est crucial de disposer d’une grande panoplie de ressources zoogénétiques pour adapter et développer nos systèmes de productions agricoles. Le changement climatique et l’émergence de nouvelles maladies animales renforcent le besoin de maintenir cette capacité d’adaptation. Pour des centaines de millions de ménages ruraux pauvres, l’élevage reste un capital clé, couvrant souvent de nombreux besoins, et permettant à la vie de s’installer dans les environnements les plus rudes du globe. L’élevage fournit une contribution majeure à la sécurité de l’alimentation et de la vie, et à l’atteinte des objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement des Nations Unies. Il sera toujours plus important dans les décennies à venir. Malheureusement, la diversité génétique est menacée. Le nombre signalé de disparitions de races est très préoccupant, mais il est encore plus inquiétant de constater que les ressources génétiques non enregistrées sont perdues avant même que leurs caractéristiques n’aient été étudiées et leur potentiel évalué.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Appreciation of the Chilean forest resource: Plantations of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus sp. 1985-1996 1998
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    This report presents the calculation of the appreciation of the Chilean forest resource for the period 1985-1996. The information comes from statistics given by enterprises and projections realized by the Chilean Forest Institute (INFOR). The calculations only considered exotic forest platations (Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus species) and excluded the native forests. This report shows the methodology used and the outputs of the calculations for each species separately.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Incorporating fuelwood production and consumption into the national accounts. A case study for Zimbabwe 1998
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    Natural resource accounting methods are applied in a case study of fuelwood consumption in Zimbabwe. This study estimates values of economic depreciation of timber stocks from fuelwood consumption from 1990 to 1996. Fuelwood is an appropriate variable to study because of the country's high dependency on wood for energy, particularly in rural areas where most of the population lives. There is substantial criticism of the linkage between the environment and national accounts in most countries incl uding Zimbabwe. Traditional national income data such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) do not fully capture the total economic value of natural resource stocks such as forests. Distinct natural resource accounting methodologies for valuing fuelwood depletion are reviewed and applied to commercial/domestic consumption. The main difference in the various approaches commonly used is in the valuation of physical stocks. Most studies use average net price as a measure of economic rent while a more ref ined approach would use the marginal net price. Using average net price can increase bias in calculating net depreciation values of timber stocks. Using either method, the resulting depreciating values are then used to adjust the national accounts. This study demonstrates some of the advantages, disadvantages and practical data limitations inherent in trying to adjust national accounts for resource depletion in a developing country context. The study also demonstrates that natural resource accou nting can be used even where data constraints exist. However, to fully capture the benefits of more refined methods such as using marginal net price for resource consumption, better quality data are required.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Estimating Timber Depreciation in the Brazilian Amazon 1998
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    This study applies distinct methodological forest accounting approaches, following Vincent and Hartwick (1997) lines, to estimate economic depreciation of timber exploitation in the Amazonian region. Although the results may not be definitive ones, due to data availability problems, this exercise has proved to bring about issues which, though are theoretical and methodologically fully recognised, are not always revealed in other regional studies. High timber stocks, lack of property rights and i nformal economic relations are issues related to the Amazonian case that require great deal of caution when one is applying economic depreciation methodologies, as is addressed on the bases of these results.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Soil resources depreciation and deforestation: Philippine case study in resource accounting 1998
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    This paper presents the results of an attempt to derive a damage function for soil loss using 20-year data projected through the application of the Erosion Productivity Index Calculator or EPIC in one soil conservation project site in the Philippines. For the asset value method, the study assumes a constant rent over the life span of the soil resource, assumed to be 30 years, which is the period in which all the topsoil is expected to be lost through erosion under condition of erosive farming pr actices. With a constant rent assumption, however, the economic measure of soil depreciation simply measures the change in the value of the asset due to the declining value of money over time. The paper also presents an estimate based on an assumption that 50% of the value of nutrients are lost through soil erosion. The study assumes that only 50% of the nutrients available in the soils are taken up by the crops. The rest are lost through various natural processes.