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Welfare of fishes in aquaculture












​Segner, H., Reiser, S., Ruane, N., Rösch, R., Steinhagen, D. and Vehanen, T. 2019. Welfare of fishes in aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. C1189. Budapest, FAO. 



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    Book (series)
    Capture-based aquaculture. Global overview. 2008
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    Aquaculture is a diverse and multibillion dollar economic sector that uses various strategies for fish production. The harvesting of wild individuals from very early stages in the life cycle to large mature adults for on-growing under confined and controlled conditions is one of these strategies. This system, referred to as capture-based aquaculture, is practised throughout the world using a variety of marine and freshwater species with important environmental, social and economic implications. The need to evaluate the sustainability of this farming practice in light of its economic viability, the wise use of natural resources and socio-environmental impacts as a whole has been extensively discussed at national, regional and international levels. In 2004, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) launched a project entitled “Towards sustainable aquaculture – selected issues and guidelines” funded by the Government of Japan which included a thematic component o n the use of wild fish and fishery resources for aquaculture production. The objective is to produce a set of technical guidelines that would assist policy-makers in developing informed and appropriate capture-based aquaculture regulations that would take into account the use and conservation of the aquatic resources exploited. This publication contains technical information prepared in support of and background material for the “FAO international workshop on technical guidelines for the respo nsible use of wild fish and fishery resources for capture-based aquaculture production” held in Viet Nam in October 2007. The first draft of the technical guidelines on capture-based aquaculture was produced during this meeting. This publication contains two parts. Part 1 consists of two reviews on (a) environmental and biodiversity and (b) social and economic impacts of capture-based aquaculture and Part 2 consists of eleven species review papers. Both marine and freshwater examples have been r eviewed and include finfish (mullet, bluefin tuna, European eel, cod, grouper, yellowtail, Clarias catfish, Indian major carps, and snakehead and Pangasiid catfish), crustaceans (mud crab) and molluscs (oyster).
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    Regional review on status and trends in aquaculture development in Europe – 2020 2022
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    This review reports on aquaculture development trends and challenges during 2000–2018 in the European Region covering 51 countries including European Union member states. Aquaculture production in the European Region is composed of marine molluscs and diadromous, marine and freshwater fish. It reached 3.4 million tonnes in 2018, while having a value of USD 16.6 billion. Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout combine to give nearly two million tonnes, with molluscs providing 0.7 million tonnes; marine fish species supplied 0.4 million tonnes and freshwater fish 0.3 million tonnes. In Europe, the strongest aquaculture growth has been seen in non-European Union states (e.g. Norway, Turkey, Russian Federation) while several European Union states have diminished production (e.g. France, Netherlands, Italy). The growth in value (5.8 percent) is higher than production (0.9 percent), which is now dominated by salmonids (nearly 60 percent), primarily Atlantic salmon. Mediterranean marine fish farming is mainly for gilthead seabream and European seabass. European cyprinid production in freshwater has increased slightly, where the Russian Federation, Czechia and Poland are the biggest producers. Mussels are the principal shellfish reared, led by Spain, followed by oysters in France and clams in Italy. While publicly quoted companies have led salmon development in Northern Europe, elsewhere aquaculture is done, with few exceptions, by SMEs and micro-enterprises. Mechanisms for financial support exist for aquaculture development throughout Europe but these have notnbeen matched by anticipated results. When unpredictable and time-consuming licensing procedures are combined with extreme competition for space and strict environmental regulations, both growth and investments are discouraged. Technology development focus has been given to structures appropriate for marine off-shore or ‘open ocean’ operation. The use of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for large operations has also developed, both for hatcheries and for farms. Treatment for diseases and parasites remains problematic. Use of the same vaccines, veterinary treatments and disinfectants is not standardised, restricting the best health and welfare practices. Access to appropriate and efficient ingredients for formulated feeds remains a key issue for European fish farming, directly influencing productivity and profitability. The European Union is the world’s largest single market for seafood and the most important destination for European aquaculture production. With preferences declared for wild products vs. farmed, the habits of the European consumer have been studied, indicating evolving influences on purchase decisions. These include the use of additives, food miles, climate change, acceptance of manufacturing practices, cost and access as well as health benefits.
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    The culture of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) in Cuba. Report of the first technical assessment mission, May 7th - 30th 1990 1990
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    The Cuban government wish to expand the tourist industry as a sorce of much needed foreign exchange. Opportunites to supply and support the industry are actively being sought and include the provision of fish and shellfish foods from fisheries and aquaculture to supply the hotel and restaurant enterprises throughout the designated tourist areas. The culture of the Giant Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is one such Trials are being made with pond reared stock using three methods to improve breeding; i) eyestalk ablation; ii) photoperiod manipulation; iii) artificial insemination. In the hatchery larvae are fed algae followed by minced clam, squid, marine fish and Artemia but Nippai prepared feeds are also used. A nursery phase is employed lasting 30–40 days which takes the shrimp from 5–10 day old post-larvae to 0.5 to 1.0 g juveniles. Stocking rate is 100/sq m but trials, have been made with 1000–2000 in 70 t tanks. In the on-growing phase shrimp are stocked at 5/m2, feed is given at from 15 to 2.5% per day and salinity is 25%. Feed costs around 200–250 pesos per tonne and contains squid, shrimp meal (from processed P. schmitti caught at sea) and zeolite. Problems with unstable artificial feed are common. Production is around 400–500 kg/ha/cycle and at present there are 1.6 to 1.7 cycles/yr. Newness of the ponds, inexperience and climatic changes are constraints on production. Early trials with P. notialis were not encouraging as growth stopped at 6–8 g, howev er new trials may be undertaken.

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