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Drivers, Dynamics and Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance In animal production










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    Meeting
    Joint FAO/OIE/WHO Expert Workshop on Non-Human Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance: Scientific assessment
    Geneva, December 1 – 5, 2003
    2003
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    Antimicrobial agents are essential drugs for human and animal health and welfare. Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health concern that is impacted by both human and non-human antimicrobial usage. Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals, including from aquaculture, companion animals and horticulture to treat or prevent disease. Antimicrobial agents are sometimes used in food animals to promote growth. The types of antimicrobials used are frequently the same as, or closely rela ted to, antimicrobials used in humans.

    The expert workshop concluded that there is clear evidence of adverse human health consequences due to resistant organisms resulting from non-human usage of antimicrobials. These consequences include infections that would not have otherwise occurred, increased frequency of treatment failures (in some cases death) and increased severity of infections, as documented for instance by fluoroquinolone resistant human Salmonella infections. Evidence shows th at the amount and pattern of non-human usage of antimicrobials impact on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in animals and on food commodities and thereby human exposure to these resistant bacteria. The foodborne route is the major transmission pathway for resistant bacteria and resistance genes from food animals to humans, but other routes of transmission exist. There is much less data available on the public health impact of antimicrobial usage in aquaculture, horticulture and companion an imals.

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    Meeting
    Antimicrobial use in aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance. Report of a Joint FAO/OIE/WHO Expert Consultation on Antimicrobial Use in Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance
    Seoul, Republic of Korea, 13-16 June 2006
    2006
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    The public health hazards related to antimicrobial use in aquaculture include the development and spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistance genes, and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in products of aquaculture. The greatest potential risk to public health associated with antimicrobial use in aquaculture is thought to be the development of a reservoir of transferable resistance genes in bacteria in aquatic environments from which such genes can be disseminated by horizont al gene transfer to other bacteria and ultimately reach human pathogens. However, a quantitative risk assessment on antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture is difficult to perform owing to lack of data and the many different and complex pathways of gene flow.
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    Booklet
    White paper: Antimicrobial resistance in the animal sector in India 2024
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    The phenomenon in which bacteria do not respond to antibiotics, when given in accordance with standard treatment guidelines, is called antimicrobial resistance (AMR). It leads to prolonged treatment, longer infectivity of the patient, use of additional and expensive investigations and potentially toxic drugs, and huge economic cost to the patient, society, and the country. AMR has been developing rapidly against even newly discovered antibiotics. The bacteria are versatile and ingenious in developing a plethora of defence mechanisms against antibiotics. Many bacterial species have accumulated resistance to multiple drugs. These are known as multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms and in layman language as “superbugs”. The spectrum and reach of MDR pathogens have been rapidly increasing. AMR in animal pathogens makes disease treatments ineffective, increases the severity of the disease, reduces productivity and leads to economic losses. In addition, more than half the quantity of antimicrobials used in animals/fish is excreted as waste contaminating soil, water and the environment. This also contributes to the emergence and spread of AMR through selection pressure on microorganisms in the environment. Besides, antimicrobial usage can lead to antimicrobials residues in the edible animal/fish products which are a public health risk.

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