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Forestry legislation in Central and Eastern Europe: A Comparative Outlook









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    Book (series)
    Trends in Forestry Legislation: Central and Eastern Europe 1999
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    Following the political changes of the early 1990s, most of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have adopted new forestry legislation. This study begins with a brief examination of the reasons that have led to this rapid replacement of existing forestry legislation, as well as the constraints which such reforms have encountered. Section II of the study examines how developments in the forestry legislation of these countries relate to international developments currently taking place. Sec tion III examines how six principal issues are treated in the emerging forestry legislation of the region. Among the final considerations is the necessity for appropriate subsidiary legislation, and for a sustained commitment by governments to implementation of the newly designed legal strategies.
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    Book (series)
    Trends in Forestry Legislation: Western Europe 2000
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    In many countries of Western Europe forest laws have long histories, and have been subject to revision and amendment in light of new social, economic and environmental demands. As a result, there is a great variety of times of adoption, structures and contents in the principal forestry legislation as applicable at present. Nevertheless, a review of this body of legislation reveals certain overall trends and insights as to the evolutionary direction of forest law in the region. Generally, the c ontent of most laws has become multi-purpose oriented and refers in particular to sustainable forest management, public participation, private forestry, Government support to forestry, integration of forestry and related activities, and protection against fires and the adverse effects from natural calamities.This contribution reviews the present situation of forestry legislation in Western European countries, examines important issues regulated in forest laws, discusses briefly the role of Europ ean Community legislation, and identifies significant trends in recent laws addressing forest conservation and sustainable forest management. The list of legislative texts which have been reviewed is included at the end. It is followed by a bibliography containing references on general developments in the region as well as country specific references.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Gender equality, social protection and rural development in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
    Insights from the region
    2016
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    This publication is a collection of articles written by economists, sociologists, and gender specialists and practitioners from twelve post-Soviet countries in Eastern Europe, South Caucasus and Central Asia. It is unique in its effort to review and analyze the issues that are at the intersection of gender equality, social protection and rural development in the region. Overall, there is a lack of research, documented knowledge and public discourse on this subject and a multi-disciplinary approa ch is necessary for ensuring an in-depth and rigorous understanding of these intersecting issues in the context of the region. In supporting this publication, the FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia intends to draw attention to these issues as critical for the socio-economic development of the region, and raise greater awareness among all stakeholders and promote more research in this area. One of the main reasons why this subject remains on the periphery of research and discourse is the widespread public opinion that issues relating to gender have already been addressed and are, therefore, not priorities for rural development and social protection. Indeed, in the post-Soviet countries, women, including those located in rural areas, continue to enjoy relatively high levels of literacy and education and high economic activity rates. Furthermore, all countries, in an effort to sustain the achievements of the previous regime, have recognized the formal supremacy of internation al legal norms and UN standards, including in the area of gender equality and women’s rights. They have also been developing and implementing national policies towards achieving gender equality. However, if we look beyond the average numbers, and disaggregate available statistics by sex and by location wherever possible, we can see that in critical areas (for example, formal employment; access to social services such as childcare facilities and pensions; and participation in local governance, am ong others), rural women often emerge as the most disadvantaged group. There are also key issues, for example, access to productive resources (such as land, credits, agricultural equipment and extension services) that are of crucial importance to rural livelihoods but are not commonly viewed from a gender perspective. Across the region, women form a majority in the rural population, and a significant proportion of the labour force engaged in agriculture. However, the overarching trend in terms o f rural women’s employment is their engagement in informal, low-skilled and low-paid jobs. Women’s access to assets and productive resources is also significantly lower than that of rural men’s. Rural women’s participation in public life has reduced dramatically over the last decades, and generous social welfare is no longer a social norm.

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