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Integrated coastal management law: Establishing and strengthening national legal frameworks for integrated coastal management

FAO Legislative Study, no. 93













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    Final evaluation of the project “Integrated management of mangrove and associated wetlands and coastal forest ecosystems in the Republic of the Congo”
    GCP/PRC/007/GFF
    2019
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    The project "Integrated management of mangroves and associated wetlands and coastal forest ecosystems in the Republic of the Congo" was implemented between July 2013 and December 2017 by the Government of the Republic of the Congo and FAO. The main phase of the final evaluation, which took place between July and August 2017, covered all the activities carried out under the different components. The evaluation recognized the relevance of the intervention given by its effort to develop and promote a community-based forest management system in the Congo. The project contributed to strengthening the national legislative and institutional framework on mangrove ecosystems, yet additional efforts are still necessary to mobilize the resources needed to implement the strategy and the plan developed as part of the project. At the time of the evaluation, no concrete activities had been implemented at community level, nevertheless the project contributed to having good awareness among communities on the importance of mangrove ecosystems.
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    Primary survey of Beach Management Units (BMU) in the Kenyan coastal marine fisheries 2012
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    Beach Management Units (BMUs) are the backbone of fisheries co-management in Kenya, led by the Fisheries Department, Ministry of Fisheries Development. Enactment of BMU Regulations, 2007 has provided necessary legal framework for the BMUs to operate and about 73 BMUs have been formed in the Coastal region of Kenya since their introduction in 2006. Implementation of Regional Fisheries Strategy for ESA-IO, commonly known as Smart Fish has initiated a BMU Evaluation Framework in the Kenyan coastal marine fisheries as a pilot project, in its quest to accompany the BMU process in the ESA coastal and riparian countries. The overall objective of the evaluation was to assess the performance of BMUs in the Kenyan coastal marine fisheries. Specific objectives were: i) to assess the organisational performance of BMUs, ii) to verify critical conditions for BMU success, iii) to assess individual BMU member achievements and iv) to assess lead institution governance performance. Sampling targeted 34% of coastal BMUs situated along the 600 km Kenyan coastline. The coastline is traversed by five counties namely, Kwale, Mombasa, Kilifi, Tana River and Lamu. Structured interviews (Likert six-point scale) and Focus Group Discussions were held with BMU representatives, including executives and individual members. Structured interviews were also done with senior Fisheries Officers in each county. Standard evaluation criteria approaches of effectiveness, efficiency, relevance and other factors such as governance, socioeconomic benefits, human resource development and sustainability were employed. In particular, factors considered included organisation performance, performance assessment, critical factors for success, authority, leadership, political vision and adequacy of resources among others. Aggregated indices (arithmetic mean and 3.5 benchmark) on each item were calculated and plotted in bar graphs while descriptive data was analysed thematically. BMU performance findings were groupe d into four major categories namely; organisation profile, organisation performance, critical success conditions and individual BMU led achievements. A further breakdown of the last three factors resulted into 22 key performance, namely; jurisdiction (satisfactory), adaptability (satisfactory), organisational adequacy (satisfactory), democratic practices (satisfactory), social-cultural considerations (satisfactory), cooperation (satisfactory), collaboration (satisfactory), communication (satisfa ctory), mutual trust (moderately satisfactory), participation (moderately satisfactory), networking (moderately satisfactory), leadership (moderately satisfactory), conflict resolution (moderately satisfactory), representativity (satisfactory unsatisfactory), cohesion (moderately satisfactory), inclusion (moderately satisfactory), effectiveness (moderately satisfactory), resources (moderately unsatisfactory), efficiency (moderately unsatisfactory), relevance (moderately unsatisfactory), enforcem ent (moderately unsatisfactory) and cost/benefits (unsatisfactory). These former nine factors can be considered as major constraints to BMU survival.
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    Planning and management for sustainable coastal aquaculture development 2001
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    The rationale for more integrated approaches to aquaculture development is powerful: coastal aquaculture has brought significant benefits to both national economies and coastal people; aquaculture is highly vulnerable to pollution caused by other resource users; if poorly designed or managed it may cause pollution or the spread of disease; its impacts are often limited but incremental and cumulative; and it often takes place in areas where resource ownership or use rights are ill defined and amb iguous. Efforts to integrate aquaculture into coastal management can contribute to improvements in selection, protection and allocation of sites and other resources for existing and future aquaculture developments. This report explores how more planned and integrated approaches can be applied to aquaculture development. These approaches range from "enhanced sectoral" initiatives, to incorporation within comprehensive ICM programmes. No simple, effective, and widely applicable models have been identified. The most appropriate approach will depend upon a wide range of local factors, including available skills and resources, the urgency of the problems or opportunities, and the nature of existing planning and development frameworks. The less comprehensive approaches may be the only realistic option in some situations, but should be seen as a starting point for, and stimulus to, more comprehensive ICM. These approaches should contribute to more systematic planning and improved m anagement of individual aquaculture operations, as well as to the coastal aquaculture sector as a whole.

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