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Climate change & the law

Achieving climate change goals through sound legal and institutional frameworks










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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Sustainable management of wildlife and food security
    through sound legal frameworks, institutions and practices
    2019
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    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), through its Development Law Service, is contributing to the achievement of food security by supporting the development of sound legal and institutional frameworks for the management of wild meat procurement and consumption. The The FAO-led Sustainable Wildlife Management (SWM) Programme is an important part of this effort.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Cabo Verde 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. Cabo Verde is an archipelago developing country in West Africa of volcanic origin having an ecological and landscape diversity associated to the geomorphological characteristics of the islands and to the influences of the actions of climate elements and anthropic pressure on the existing resources. Agricultural land in the country is about 79000ha representing 19.6% of the total land area. Agriculture is predominantly based on subsistence family production. The production systems present can be categorised into rainfed and irrigated systems. Major crops produced include maize, pulses, vegetables, coconut, sugar cane, coffee and fruits. In terms of agricultural inputs, Cabo Verde has an irrigation potential of 3,109ha although a small proportion (5.9%) of the agricultural areas is equipped for irrigation. However, drip irrigation has expanded fast, with investments made in water mobilisation and gravity irrigation schemes. Cereals continue to constitute the major parts of Cabo Verdean diet although diets are now more diversified with more proteins and micronutrients-rich foods. As a small island development state (SIDS), Cabo Verde has one of the lowest GHG emissions per capita. Challenges to agriculture include (i) growth in population and food demand, (ii) limited marketing opportunities of agricultural commodities, (iii) climate change and variability, and (iv) food waste. Climate models ran during 2008-2012 have shown that the country’s natural vulnerabilities, along with their social and economic implications, are very likely to be exacerbated by climate-related disruptions in the next decades. In addition, the country is affected by acute water scarcity (both surface and underground) with erratic mean annual precipitation level decreasing since 1970. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges, as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include (i) integrated pest and disease management (IPM)), (ii) drip irrigation, (iii) anti-erosion practises, (iv) soil and water conservation (SWC) techniques, (v) shelterbelts, and (vi) improved seeds/breeds. Several institutions aim to foster the development and adoption of technologies that enhance agriculture productivity and advance CSA practises in Cabo Verde. The ministry of environment, agriculture and fisheries is the main government institutions responsible for the country’s climate change plans and policies. The food and agriculture organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations development programme (UNDP) play instrumental roles in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and environmental sustainability. There is no specific funding allocated to CSA per se in the country. However, various projects funded within the purview of agriculture, environmental sustainability and climate change have contributed to delivering CSA goals. Sources of funding include FAO, World Bank, GEF with support of UNDP, etc. The country has also benefitted from other grants to support it in the development of various strategies, action plans, policies and frameworks. Several policies, strategies, plans and programmes are being implemented to fight climate change and promote activities underpinning CSA.
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    Book (series)
    Agriculture and climate change
    Law and governance in support of climate smart agriculture and international climate change goals
    2020
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    Many national legal frameworks still do not include laws and measures specifically intended to tackle climate change in the agriculture sectors. However, national laws and institutional frameworks are necessary for good governance and can operate to support the implementation of national policy and international commitments, including on climate change. Indeed, Target 16.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals calls for the promotion of the rule of law, and the assurance of equal access to justice for all. This is both an important stand-alone goal and an enabling goal for the realization of the transformative 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development‎. Furthermore, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) sees appropriately designed, informed and responsive national legal and institutional frameworks as key to supporting the implementation of countries’ commitments under the 2015 Paris Agreement, as well as their Nationally Determined Contribution in the food, agriculture and natural resources sectors. Climate change presents multiple challenges and it cannot be addressed effectively in silos. Attention must be paid not only to specific agriculture sectors, but also to governance areas that are interconnected with agriculture, such as public spending and investment, social protection and rural development. Efforts should be coordinated with the engagement of civil society, including the legal profession, vulnerable groups and the private sector. This Study addresses the principal expressions of the food and agriculture sector (crops and livestock agriculture, forestry and fisheries), looking at the critical cross-cutting issues and their integration into agriculture law. It provides a comprehensive overview of the legal and institutional issues to consider when working towards preparing the agriculture sector for the challenges of climate change.

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