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Integrated livestock-fish farming systems








Little, D.C.;Edwards, P. Integrated livestock-fish farming systems. Rome, FAO. 2003. 177p.


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    Restoration of productive aquatic ecosystems by small-scale fisheries and aquaculture communities in Asia
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    This report showcases examples of actions taken by small-scale fishers and aquaculture farmers in Asia to restore the productivity of aquatic ecosystems. Small-scale fishers and fish farmers include some of the world’s most marginalized and impoverished people groups, yet their harvests account for over half of the world’s aquatic food production. The marine, coastal and freshwater ecosystems their livelihoods depend upon are degraded from human impacts and further at risk from climate change. Ecosystem restoration actions by fisherfolk communities can revitalize the socio-ecological services and sustain progress over time. Both passive and active restoration approaches are being employed across Asia’s marine, coastal and inland waterways. Fishers, fish farmers, and fishworkers’ restorative actions are focused on increasing the sustainability of their operations. Common approaches include eliminating destructive fishing, reducing overfishing through gear changes and effort control, restoring connectivity of floodplains and fish migration pathways, integrated aquaculture and rice-farming practices, re-stocking of native fisheries, and actively rehabilitating and / or re-establishing habitats. Progress is measurable through a diverse array of environmental, socio-economic and governance related metrics. Changes in fisheries catches, ecological connectivity, water quality, habitat diversity and structure, and fish consumption provide important measures of biodiversity gains (or losses). Common enablers of success include economic incentives, co-management and legal recognition of fishing rights, highly engaged fisherfolk cooperatives or community groups, women’s leadership and development, and community partnerships with stakeholders that focus on enabling fisherfolk’s own goals for sustainable livelihoods. Ecosystem restoration activities have not lasted when these enablers are insufficiently attended to and when environmental aspects of project feasibility, such as the choice of rehabilitation locations and / or species, are poorly planned. Successes in ecosystem restoration by fisherfolk can and are being scaled out to neighbouring communities and countries. Key to this is the sharing of stories, lessons learned and tools through south-south partnerships, learning exchanges, and women’s groups. Simple, low-cost tools and actions have enabled long-term engagement by small-scale fishers in sustainable operations. More complex actions, such as the uptake of integrated aquaculture systems, are also enabling stepwise changes in ecosystem restoration. By sharing stories from different ecosystems, fisheries, and geographies, this report seeks to help fisherfolk and their partners glean from one another and achieve faster progress in ecosystem restoration.
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    Aquatic Animal Health Management Issues In Rural Aquaculture Development In Lao PDR 1999
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    This paper describes the role of small-scale aquaculture in subsistence farming systems in rural Lao PDR. Small-scale aquaculture is a popular component of subsistence farming systems in Lao PDR, however rice cultivation is the principle activity during them on soon season and collection of aquatic products from rice fields is common. Results from a consumption and production survey of rural Lao subsistence farmers, many of whom were engaged in fish culture (84 %), are presented. Consumption of fish and aquatic products was estimated between 13 - 48 kg.capita-1.yr-1, representing between22% - 55% of animal product consumption. Livestock and fish production are the principle forms of income generation and the average value of fish production was $81per household; overall family income ranged between $372 - $594.household-1.yr-1.Minimising risk is a principal strategy in subsistence farming and this is reflected in the low input and low productivity of Lao rural aquaculture. Average pond size ranges between 550 - 1,520 m2, with water depth of about 50 cm. Productivity is low (417 - 708kg.ha-1.yr-1) due to low stocking densities (1 - 4 fish.m-2) and limited feeding. Low input aquaculture systems are not disease prone, but may become so during the dry season, or when increased inputs are applied. Livestock production is perceived as high risk due to disease, whereas the lack of significant losses in aquaculture is seen as a positive feature. Shortage of fingerlings for stocking a quaculture ponds and rice fields encourages importation from neighbouring countries. These imported fingerlings are often poor quality and survival appears to below. There is also a potential risk of introduction of diseases present in the countries of origin. Production of fingerlings within Lao PDR is limited to provincial hatcheries and a few private entrepreneurs. This activity is increasing and is susceptible to health management related problems. Health management issues limit production in Lao PDR and thereby constrain development, but are not causing direct economic loss. This may not be the case with respect to impacts on wild fisheries and fish movements. The lack of baseline information on aquatic animal health issues available for Lao PDR limits the ability to assess risk in the aquaculture and fisheries sectors.
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    Manure helps feed the world
    Integrated Manure Management demonstrates manure is a valuable resource
    2016
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    Integrated Manure Management is the optimal handling of livestock manure from collection, through storage and treatment up to application (crops and aquaculture). Through this process it is possible to prevent nutrient losses to a large extent under the site-specific circumstances.

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