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Drug management and parasite resistence in animal Trypansomiasis in Africa









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    Book (series)
    Drug management and parasite resistance in bovine trypanosomiasis in Africa 1998
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    Trypanocidal drugs remain the principal method of animal trypanosomiasis control in most African countries. However, there is growing concern that their future effectiveness may be severely curtailed by widespread drug resistance. This document presents an overview of the current situation of resistance to drugs for the chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in African livestock. Although the number of case reports on drug resistance is increasing, there is a lack of reliable data at the regional or national level on the true prevalence and impact of drug resistance. In order to compare data on a temporal and spatial basis across Africa there is an urgent need for better standardization of tests for the detection of drug resistance. The advantages and disadvantages of the currently available assays are briefly reviewed and measures suggested to improve the situation. Finally, some guidelines on delaying the development of drug resistance are proposed and measures which may be adopted to control drug resistance when it occurs are recommended. Although there is still a lack of knowledge about the mechanisms of resistance and the factors responsible for the development of drug resistance, urgent measures are needed to maintain the efficacy of the existing drugs. Based on experiences of the control of resistance to other drugs such as antimalarials, antibiotics and anthelmintics it is suggested that reliance on the "sanative pair" guideline might not be sufficient to control resistance to trypanocides. This guideline needs to be accompanied by the following additional measures:
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    Article
    Cattle breeding, trypanosomosis prevalence and drug resistance in Northern Togo 2017
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    African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is a major disease of cattle in Togo and its control is essentially based on chemotherapy. However, because of excessive use of trypanocides during the past decades, chemo-resistance in the parasites has developed. In order to assess the current situation of AAT and resistance to trypanocidal drugs in Northern Togo, a study was conducted on cattle from December 2012 to August 2013 in the regions of Kara and Savanes. An initial cross-sectional survey was carrie d out in 40 villages using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique (HCT). Out of these, 5 villages with a trypanosome prevalence of > 10% were selected for a block treatment study (BT) with diminazene diaceturate (DA: 3.5 mg / kg for a 14-day follow-up) and isometamidium chloride (ISM: 0.5 mg / kg for a 28-day follow-up). Positive blood samples collected during the parasitological surveys and an equivalent number of negatives were further analyzed by PCR-RFLP for trypanosome species confirmatio n and molecular diagnosis of resistance to DA in T. congolense. The results from 1,883 bovine blood samples confirmed a high overall trypanosome prevalence of 10.8% in Northern Togo. PCR-RFLP revealed that T. congolense is the dominant pathogenic trypanosome species (50.5%) followed by T. vivax (27.3%), and T. brucei (16.2%). The BT showed varying levels of treatment failures ranging from 0 to 30% and from 0 to 50% for DA and for ISM respectively, suggesting the existence of resistant trypanosom e populations in the study area. Our results show that AAT still represents a major obstacle to the development of cattle husbandry in Northern Togo. In areas of high AAT risk, a community-based integrated strategy combining vector control, rational use of trypanocidal drugs and improving the general condition of the animals is recommended to decision makers.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    A field guide for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of African animal trypanosomosis 1998
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    The new edition of the well-known field guide on African animal trypanosomiasis adheres as much as possible to the original style and, particularly, to the intention of the author of the first edition in that it is essentially meant to be a guide for field control personnel. Its scope has been extended somewaht beyond that of the African continent, as trypanosomes of African origin have spread to the Americas as well as to Asia, and even to Europe, but the main emphasis remains on Africa. More a ttention is also given to methods of control of the disease other thn those using chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis, as it is being realized that drugs alone are not a sustainable answer, and have to be integrated into a multidisciplinary and flexible approach to control the disease.

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