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The Vanuatu Organic Cocoa Growers Association (VOCGA): A Case Study of Agriculture for Growth in the Pacific








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    Article
    Enhancing public-private sector collaboration: A case of the Uganda Timber Growers Association affiliated tree growers and public actors building a sustainable commercial forestry industry
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Uganda’s forests are a treasured natural asset contributing 8.7% to the national economy (NEMA 2011). However, Uganda has been losing its forest cover alarmingly, from 24% in 1990 to 9% in 2015. In Uganda, Forestry is coordinated by the Ministry of Water and Environment through the Forest Sector Support Department. Government through the National Forestry Authority has provided land in degraded Central Forest Reserves (CFRs) to private investors under license. Nearly 70% of planted forests are in CFRs. Additionally; Government initiatives like the Sawlog Production Grant Scheme project is providing financial and technical support based on a set of national Forestry standards. Finally, Government has created a conducive environment for the commercial forest sector to grow at an unprecedented rate of 7000 ha per year. Since 2004, the private sector in Uganda has been exemplary, on building a private sector-led commercial forestry industry. Most of the investors (99.8%) are small to medium scale (1000 ha and below). The private sector is coordinated by the Uganda Timber Growers Association (UTGA), the umbrella body of tree growers that does advocacy, networking, information sharing, collective procurement, marketing and extension. The private sector is growing over 85% (over 80,000 ha) of Uganda’s forest resource. UTGA has promoted the certification of plantations and chain of custody with area up to 42,000 ha, the largest in East Africa and two organizations certified in chain of custody. Plans are underway for the establishment of an apex body for carpenters, timber traders and wood processors. The strong collaboration between Government and private sector actors has yielded remarkable results for Uganda’s forestry. The public private partnerships have provided solutions to challenges of illegality, poor governance, forest degradation and deforestation by providing a platform for individuals, companies and communities to grow trees while protecting gazetted forest land. Keywords: Planted Forests, private sector, CFRs ID: 3487300
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Cambodia country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
    Food and Agriculture Policy Decision Analysis (FAPDA) - FAO
    2014
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    Cambodia is a low income country in the Southeast Asia region. Agriculture contributed 37 percent to the GDP and employed about 67 percent of the workforce in 2012. Most Cambodian farmers are smallholders with less than two hectares per household. The country’s agricultural resources consist primarily of 3.7 million hectares of cultivated land, of which 75 percent is devoted to rice, primary commodity and source of income for the majority of farmers and 25 percent to other food and industrial cr ops, primarily rubber. Freshwater and marine fisheries and aquatic resources provide employment to over three million people. Fish is also a major source of protein in the domestic diet. On average, agricultural GDP growth in Cambodia has lagged behind the industrial and service sectors but maintained a sustained annual rate between 4 and 5 percent during the last decade. In 2013, agricultural production increased by 4.3 percent with a paddy harvest at record levels (about 9.3 million tonnes). R ice production has registered significant productivity improvements in terms of both labour and land. Paddy is also a key commodity for exports: in 2013, Cambodia exported a record level of 1.2 million tonnes of rice, accounting for more than 3 percent of the total worldwide rice exports. The country has experienced rapid economic growth since 1993, with an annual GDP growth of 7.3 percent in 2012. The poverty rate has decreased by more than half since 2007, but one-fifth of the population is st ill living below the poverty line and income inequality has increased. Despite good success in reducing undernourishment over the last two decades (proportion of undernourished in total population declined from 39 percent in 1990/92 to 15 percent in 2011/13), the country seems unlikely to meet the 4th Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality rate by two thirds by 2015.
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    Three characteristics of global cocoa governance: Diversification, flexibilization, and coordination
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Most of the commodity crops are produced by low-income countries in the Global South and consumed in the Global North. Due to their vulnerability to price fluctuation, their prices have been regulated by commodity agreements between producing and consuming countries. However, after these prices were decided through the market, price regulation was no longer included in the negotiation agenda of commodity agreements. The cocoa sector has continued its collective global efforts to address various environmental and social issues even after the issue of price regulation was ceased to be addressed. This study investigated global cocoa governance by analyzing global cocoa actors, rules, and agendas through a content analysis of global documents related to the cocoa sector. The results indicated a transition in the three aforementioned aspects over time. First, the actors and agendas in the sector diversified. From the 2000s, private actors emerged and actively participated in forming global cocoa agendas and suggesting solutions to cocoa-related problems. Accordingly, more varied issues were included in the agendas. Second, the global cocoa rules were softened. Treaties among countries have controlled the global cocoa industry. Recently-introduced soft laws enabled diverse issues to be addressed and facilitated the participation of various actors. Third, coordination was emphasized at the international and state level. The inclusion of varied actors and agendas necessitated the alignment of efforts for improving global cocoa governance. Aiming to tackle issues through interaction among actors, rules, and agendas, global cocoa governance has been evolving in three distinct ways: diversification, flexibilization, and coordination. Keywords: Cocoa; Global governance; Diversification; Flexibilization; Coordination ID: 3622424

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