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NENA Regional Network on Nutrition-Sensitive Food System – Policy Brief

Building resilience and protecting diets in fragile and conflict-affected contexts










FAO. 2021. NENA Regional Network on Nutrition-Sensitive Food System – Technical Brief: Building resilience and protecting diets in fragile and conflict-affected contexts. Cairo.


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    Cuba - Plan Of Action. Response to needs arising from Hurricane Sandy - November 2012 2013
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    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern region of Cuba hard. It passed through the country on 25 October, 2012 as a category 2 Hurricane (approaching category 3) in a five hours span. Sustained winds reached 200 km/h as Sandy lashed Cuba´s second and third most populated provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Holguin, respectively. 340,000 people were evacuated as a preventative measure, of whom 300,000 stayed with relatives. With the exception of 1,000 people accommodated in collective centres, these people have now returned to their damaged homes. Despite these preparedness measures, 11 people died and some three million people (27% of the country's inhabitants) are indirectly affected. At least half of these have had their housing, water, and food directly affected. Half of this population is female. More than 226,600 homes were damaged (representing 50% of the inhabitants of the eastern region) and at least 17,000 were destroyed - the majority in the City of Santiago de Cuba, with a population of close to 500,000 people. Although the Government of Cuba is responding swiftly and effectively to the hurricane, additional response is needed. The United Nations System, in support of the initial response of the Government, is working closely with local authorities, donors and emergency organizations to support national efforts. UN agencies mobilized $1.5 million in emergency funds, which was complemented by a $1.6 million allocation from the Central Emergency Response Fund from the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The urban context of the affected area, with significant losses in housing, food reserves, crops, and storage and production facilities, combined with Santiago de Cuba´s importance as an economic hub for the eastern region and the country, has strained response capacity and leaves a huge impact on the living conditions of affected people. Given the magnitude of the storm and the resulting devastation, those affected ne ed urgent support to maintain basic health and nutritional standards and to provide adequate shelter/housing conditions. Of particular concern are heightened needs of vulnerable groups, such as women, pregnant women, children under five, as well as elderly people over 65. Immediate assistance is intended to address basic needs, and support start-up of recovery activities, while reducing vulnerabilities by strengthening communities’ resilience to future extreme weather. Food security is of pr iority given the magnitude of the losses of food combined with damage to food storage facilities. In addition to large losses in agriculture crops in the eastern region hit directly by the hurricane, subsequent flooding in the central regions compounds food losses. There is also an urgent need to restore health care services including repair of structures, replacement of medical equipment and restocking of medicines such as antibiotics and supplies. It must be assured that vaccination serv ices are resumed, early warning surveillance, prevention and treatment of potential disease outbreak, provision of maternal health services and sexual and reproductive health are in place. The immediate return of students and teachers to classes requires emergency repairs to damaged schools and replacement of school materials, interventions to provide potable water and sanitation, and construction material to repair roofs. This Plan of Action is seeking $30.6 million to address the urgent needs of the population affected by Hurricane Sandy.1 The UNS developed this plan recognizing the priorities of the affected population and was discussed with the Government. The UNS also held discussions with the Red Cross and international NGOs to avoid duplication of efforts. All projects and activities in the Plan of Action have humanitarian aspects that will be implemented during the first six months. Due to the particularities of the impact of this disaster and its urban context, many projects will continue until 18 months, strengthening the transition recovery. This strategy will cover basic immediate needs as well as support the improvement of living conditions of affected people.
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    Pakistan dietary guidelines for better nutrition 2018
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    The first national DGs were developed in 2005 by the Ministry of Health, Government of Pakistan to provide dietary recommendations for infants, children and adults. A lack of dietary diversification, unsatisfactory maternal and child care practices, industrialization and changing lifestyles in addition to natural catastrophes have led to a deteriorating nutrition situation in the country, that made it essential to review the relationship between diet and disease in the local context and revisit the existing food based dietary guidelines to mitigate the risk factors for under and over-nutrition and chronic diseases. The revised PDGN have taken into account the local dietary practices, cooking methods, cost of diet, nutrition and health situation of the population, socio-cultural practices, economic and environmental conditions to meet the nutritional requirements of individuals by and large. As food consumption and dietary patterns of individuals vary from country to country, so do the dietary guidelines developed to meet the nutritional requirements of the population on the basis of age, gender and physiological status. Similarly with the passage of time, there has been an increase in population growth, rural to urban migration as well as change in dietary habits, socio-economic conditions, lifestyles and prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Hence, dietary guidelines need to be revised to meet the changing population needs. The PDGN provide a list of foods with portion sizes to help the general public make smart and healthy food choices for a healthy, long and active life. Women of childbearing age, preschool children and adolescents are more vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies due to their increased physiological requirements and prevailing dietary and socio-cultural practices. The development and implementation of age specific dietary guidelines thus is vital for maintaining nutritional balance, weight management, prevention of diseases and improving the quality of life of the population particularly the most vulnerable groups. PDGN are resource for evidence-based decisions making and better policy choices. They also serve as tool for programme managers and professionals engaged in agriculture, food, nutrition and health related activities to develop cost-effective policies, strategies and nutrition programmes that promote healthy diet, support production, access and utilization of safe and nutritious foods, including interventions to reduce and control diet related diseases.
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    Scaling up Nutrition in the African Region
    A Consultation in response to the WHA Resolution (WHA 63.23) - Harare, 3-5 May 2011
    2011
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    The World Health Assembly (WHA) was made aware that worldwide malnutrition accounts for 11% of the global burden of disease, which leads to long-term poor health and disability and poor educational and developmental outcomes. The WHA further learned that worldwide 186 million children are stunted and 20 million suffer from the most deadly form of severe acute malnutrition each year. In response to these challenges, the 63rd WHA has approved resolution 63.23, urging Member States to increase the political commitment to prevent and reduce malnutrition in all its forms, to strengthen and expedite the sustainable implementation of the global strategy for infant and young child feeding, to develop or review current policy frameworks addressing the double burden of malnutrition, to scale up interventions that improve infant and young child nutrition and to strengthen nutrition surveillance. The overall objective of the Consultation on the WHA resolution was to update partners on the nutritio n situation in Africa and to advocate to governments and partners for the implementation of the WHA resolution and discuss the preparation for the proposed International Conference on Nutrition 20 years since the first ICN was held in 1992 (ICN +20).

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