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Review of food and agricultural policies in Malawi







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    Book (stand-alone)
    Public expenditure on food and agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa
    Trends, challenges and priorities
    2021
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    Monitoring and analysing food and agriculture policies and their effects is crucial to support decision makers in developing countries to shape better policies that drive agricultural and food systems transformation. This report is a technical analysis of government spending data on food and agriculture during 2004–2018 in 13 sub-Saharan African countries – Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. It analyses the level of public expenditure, including budget execution, source of funding and decentralized spending, as well as the composition of expenditure, including on producer or consumer support, research and development, infrastructure and more to reveal the trends and challenges that countries are facing. It also delves into the relationship between the composition of public expenditure and agricultural performance. As a way forward for future policymaking, the report offers a set of recommendations to strengthen policy monitoring systems and data generation for effective public investments in food and agriculture. The report is produced by the Monitoring and Analysing Food and Agricultural Policies (MAFAP) programme at FAO in collaboration with MAFAP country partners.
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    Agricultural policy incentives in sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade (2005–2016)
    Monitoring and Analysing Food and Agricultural Policies (MAFAP) synthesis study
    2018
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    The study summarizes the results emerging from the 2017 update of the Monitoring and Analysing Food and Agricultural Policies (MAFAP) indicators for the 2005-2016 period for 14 sub-Saharan African countries. These indicators - comparable across commodities, countries and years - are commonly used to assess the extent of policy support in agriculture. They measure the effect of trade and market policies and inefficiencies on the degree of price incentives faced by farmers in key commodity value chains, as well as the level and composition of public expenditures in support of the agriculture sector. Despite results being very heterogeneous across countries and commodities, aggregate figures indicate that price incentives to agriculture are overall increasing across the period. Policies focused on supporting domestic production, through import tariffs and price support, are likely to be the main drivers of such a trend, following the food price crises period (2007–2011) when policy-makers were mainly concerned about consumer protection. Despite that, market inefficiencies still persist as a source of price disincentives to farmers and a major constraint on agricultural development. Consistently, public expenditure indicators confirm that direct budget transfers in support of producers, mainly in the form of input subsidies, continue to represent the largest part of agriculture expenditure in most countries. In general terms, only a few countries increased the share of agricultural expenditure within total public budgets in 2015. Expenditures on research and knowledge dissemination are overall stagnant or declining. Food crops continue to dominate public budgets while spending on cash crops or “innovative” products as well as on value chain integration and commercialization remains limited. Some efforts to convert resources that were previously allocated to input subsidies into investments in agricultural and rural infrastructures are seen.
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    Can budget support to the cotton sector be used more efficiently? An assessment of the policy support measures in Mali and Burkina Faso. 2015
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    In Burkina Faso and Mali, cotton is the most important cash crop, given its high contribution to the GDP and to the export sector revenue. Export of cotton lint accounted for 60 and 15 percent of the value of national exports, respectively, in 2014. To maintain the level of cotton production, the two Governments support the sector. Indeed, the analysis based on the Monitoring and Analysing Food and Agricultural Policies (MAFAP) methodology show that producers received incentives of 21 and 12 p ercent in Burkina Faso and Mali, respectively, between 2005 and 2012 (Nominal Rate of Protection-NRP). The analysis provides insights on the level of domestic price protection that compensates price distortions resulting from on one hand, exogenous causes namely the international price distortions and the exchange rate misalignment and on the other hand, endogenous inefficiencies such as the high transport or processing costs. Two adjusted NRP are computed, one using an adjusted benchmark price for cotton that is netted out of policy interventions at the international level (Anderson, 2006) and one using an alternate, non-misaligned exchange rate (BCEAO, 2013). The value chain inefficiencies are then discussed, using the Market Development Gap indicator which reveals that higher producer price could be obtained if inefficiencies were corrected through sound investment policies. Finally, a budgetary allocation analysis is proposed, along with the computation of Nominal Rates of Assist ance that reveal the full extent of policy support to the cotton value chain. Price intervention, with other cotton-related budgetary transfers, represented 9 percent of food and agricultural expenditure in Burkina Faso between 2006 and 2012 and 31 percent in Mali.

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