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Remédier à la pénurie d’eau dans l’agriculture: en quoi les pratiques indigènes ou traditionnelles peuvent-elles aider?

Rapport d'activité du Forum FSN N° 151









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    Addressing water scarcity in agriculture: how can indigenous or traditional practices help?
    FSN Forum Activity Report No. 151
    2018
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    This document summarizes the online discussion "Addressing water scarcity in agriculture: how can indigenous or traditional practices help?", which was held on the FAO Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum) from 12 June to 6 July 2018. The discussion was facilitated by Patrick Bahal’okwibale from FAO, Ethiopia and Jean-Marc Mwenge Kahinda from CSIR, South Africa and aimed at exploring the role that indigenous and traditional practices can play to support climate change adaptation efforts and reduce water scarcity in agriculture.
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    Le potentiel de l'agroécologie pour renforcer la resilience des moyens de subsistance et des systèmes alimentaires face au changement climatique - Résumé 2020
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    Cette brochure offre un aperçu de l'étude sur "Le potentiel de l'agroécologie pour renforcer la résilience des moyens de subsistance et des systèmes alimentaires face au changement climatique". Elle fournit également des preuves et des données sur le potentiel technique (i.e. écologique et socio-économique) ainsi que sur les défis et les contraintes à prendre en compte pour promouvoir une approche agroécologique dans la lutte contre les effets des changements climatiques. Les résultats de cette étude favoriseront les discussions autour de l'agroécologie dans les forums nationaux et internationaux sur le climat. Téléchargez le rapport complet ici: https://doi.org/10.4060/cb0438en
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    Women’s land rights and agrarian change: Evidence from indigenous communities in Cambodia 2019
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    Current changes in land tenure in Cambodia are reshaping indigenous communities agrarian and socio-economic systems. Customary laws that have determined land usage and rights, are now undergoing profound transformations. The commodification of land, influenced by processes of dispossession and alienation, is reshaping communities’ norms and customs. Land, before freely available to users, is now substantially a private asset and as such transferred from one generation to the next one like other assets. Customary laws derive their legitimacy from social systems that are context specific and change with time. This determines their ambiguous character as instruments for resistance and self-determination as well as generators of unequal social relations in rural communities. The experiences from other continents and countries have shown the contradictory and often conflicting linkage between customary land rights and women’s rights to own land. This study analysis the customary inheritance system of indigenous groups in Northern Cambodia, prevalently centred around matrilineal or bilateral kinship, where women used to inherit and own the principal family assets. The research questions focus on indigenous women’s inheritance and property rights as they apply to land, in the context of increasing land commoditization and scarcity. The aim of the enquiry is to contribute to the understanding of the gender implications of these changes, by gaining insight about women’s position vis-à-vis land property, inheritance and transfer to new generations. The changes in land tenure that have occurred in Ratanakiri province during the last decades have resulted in a substantial alienation of land and resources formerly available to indigenous people. Consequently, the area farmed under shifting cultivation has significantly decreased and been replaced by permanent commercial crops, while the increasing monetization of communities’ economy has triggered new processes of social differentiation. Little support has been given to indigenous farmers in order to manage this transition and adapt their farming system while maintaining its sustainability. The legal instruments deriving from the Land Law, which in theory should have contributed to provide formal legal protecting to indigenous land and allow communities to continue using land according to their traditional tenure system were impaired by delays and the obstacles in the practical implementation of the law. External actors, institutional as well as non-governmental, have been actively promoting agricultural practices centred on rapid gains, unsustainable exploitation of land and forest, carpet introduction of monocultures without creating the conditions for the establishment of favourable value chains and market conditions. The changes that have taken place have important implications in terms of women’s role and status within communities: not only because of the farming system transition, but also as a consequence of the increasing influence of the mainstream culture, in which gender norms are more hierarchical and constrictive then the ones in use among the indigenous peoples targeted by this study. Following the evidence presented here, strengthening indigenous women land rights may result from a multipurpose approach that embraces different areas of interventions and actors, detailed in the recommendations provided.

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