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粮食和农业生物多样性国家联络点小组第二次会议第一部分报告













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    Soil pollution is invisible to the human eye, but it compromises the quality of the food we eat, the water we drink, and the air we breathe and puts human and environmental health at risk. Most contaminants originate from human activities such as industrial processes and mining, poor waste management, unsustainable farming practices, accidents ranging from small chemical spills to accidents at nuclear power plants, and the many effects of armed conflicts. Pollution knows no borders: contaminants are spread throughout terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and many are distributed globally by atmospheric transport. In addition, they are redistributed through the global economy by way of food and production chains. Soil pollution has been internationally recognized as a major threat to soil health, and it affects the soil’s ability to provide ecosystem services, including the production of safe and sufficient food, compromising global food security. Soil pollution hinders the achievement of many of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including those related to poverty elimination (SDG 1), zero hunger (SDG 2), and good health and well-being (SDG 3). Soil pollution hits the most vulnerable hardest, especially children and women (SDG 5). The supply of safe drinking water is threatened by the leaching of contaminants into groundwater and runoff (SDG 6). CO2 and N2O emissions from unsustainably managed soils accelerate climate change (SDG 13). Soil pollution contributes to land degradation and loss of terrestrial (SDG 15) and aquatic (SDG 14) biodiversity, and decreased the security and resilience of cities (SDG 11), among others.
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    Satisfying the changing food habits and increased demand for food intensifies pressure on the world’s water, land and soil resources. However, agriculture bears great promise to alleviate these pressures and provide multiple opportunities to contribute to global goals. Sustainable agricultural practices lead to water saving, soil conservation, sustainable land management, conservation of natural resources, ecosystem and climate change benefits. Accomplishing this requires accurate information and a major change in how we manage these resources. It also requires complementing efforts from outside the natural resources management domain to maximize synergies and manage trade-offs.The objective of SOLAW 2021 is to build awareness of the status of land and water resources, highlighting the risks, and informing on related opportunities and challenges, also underlining the essential contribution of appropriate policies, institutions and investments. Recent assessments, projections and scenarios from the international community show the continued and increasing depletion of land and water resources, loss of biodiversity, associated degradation and pollution, and scarcity in the primary natural resources. SOLAW 2021 highlights the major risks and trends related to land and water and presents means of resolving competition among users and generating multiple benefits for people and the environment. The DPSIR framework was followed in order to identify the Drivers, Pressures, Status, Impact and Responses. SOLAW 2021 provides an update of the knowledge base and presents a suite of responses and actions to inform decision-makers in the public, private, and civil sectors for a transformation from degradation and vulnerability toward sustainability and resilience.
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    Examen scientifique des effets des changements climatiques sur les organismes nuisibles aux végétaux
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    Les changements climatiques constituent un défi sans précédent pour la biosphère et la communauté internationale, et représentent également un défi singulier pour la santé des végétaux. L'activité humaine et la mondialisation accrue des marchés, associées à la hausse des températures, ont créé une situation propice à la circulation et à l'établissement des organismes nuisibles. Le présent examen scientifique évalue les effets potentiels des changements climatiques sur les organismes nuisibles aux végétaux et, par conséquent, sur la santé des végétaux. Les données examinées indiquent clairement que les changements climatiques ont déjà permis à certains organismes nuisibles d'étendre leur gamme d'hôtes et leur aire de répartition, et qu’ils peuvent encore accroître le risque d'introduction d'organismes nuisibles dans de nouvelles zones. Face à ce constat, il est essentiel de développer la coopération internationale et d'élaborer des stratégies harmonisées de protection des végétaux pour aider les pays à adapter efficacement leurs mesures de gestion du risque phytosanitaire à la réalité des changements climatiques.

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