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Molecular tools for lophodermella needle cast management in pine forests in Colorado, USA

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022










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    Spatial distribution model of phragmanthera plant parasite in Rift Valley Ecoregion of Kenya
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    About 80% of Kenya’s land area has been classified as Arid and Semi-Arid, ASALs and experiences high temperatures and low erratic rainfall throughout the year. In the search for suitable tree species for agroforestry and landscape restoration in Kenyan ASALs two Meliaceae tree species, indigenous Melia volkensii (Geurke) and exotic Azadirachta indica (A. Juss.) were selected for further research. In Kenya, Botryosphaeriaceae has been reported on Grevillea robusta on-farm causing damage to the tree and in severe cases leads to mortality. Molecular identification of cultures used in the study based on rDNA of the ITS and Tef1-alpha gene regions for 86 isolates classified into 6 species of the Botryosphaeriaceae. 3 of the Botryosphaeriaceae species belonged to the genus Lasiodiplodia namely L. pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae and L. parva. This is the first report of species Spencermartinsia viticola and Macrophoma theicola in Kenya. Pathogenicity tests done under glasshouse conditions showed that the L. pseudotheobromae species was most virulent to both M. volkensii & A. indica while L. theobromae was least virulent to both tree species. Wilting & necrosis was recorded within 7 days of inoculation but wound healing occurred on both species after 12 weeks. This study gives insight into disease resistance and tolerance of these dryland species for plantation establishment. It also revealed wider host diversity for Botryosphaeriaceae in the drylands. Further research into the species disease resistance mechanisms and proper silvicultural treatments are a prerequisite for large scale planting of the two tree species in light of climate variation and ecosystem changes. The recommendations given in the study are being taken into account for commercial forestry ventures in the drylands and advisory services being provided for diseases control and management. Key words: Pathogenicity test, Phylogenetic analyses, Lesion measurement ID: 3623720
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    Smell the disease - Developing rapid, high-throughput and non-destructive screening methods for early detection of alien invasive forest pathogens and pests featuring next-generation technologies
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Global forests are increasingly threatened by alien invasive pathogens and pests. The magnitude of this threat is expected to further increase in the future, due to the warmer climate and more extensive global transports and trade of plants. Pests and pathogens are often introduced to new areas by trade with ornamental plants as intermediate hosts, and there is a great need to modernize the tools for detection of alien species in imported plants and in monitoring of those that are already established in our forests. To achieve this goal, research in forest pathology is focused on combining recent technological advances in robotics, next generation sequencing, and mass spectroscopic methods with knowledge about the specific metabolic responses in the pests and pathogens and the trees that they infest. Gas Chromatography (GC) Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) adsorbed on Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) fibers is one promising method with potential for high-throughput detection of larger plant shipments. By the establishment of a library of chemical fingerprints characterizing specific pests and pathogens, one could non-destructively scan a large number of plants in ports or nurseries to eliminate presence of disease. The species-specific combination of VOCs can be utilized to prevent introduction of harmful pests and pathogens to new markets. One pathogen considered as a quarantine species and a serious threat on-the-horizon for coniferous forests is Pine Pitch Canker (PPC), a fungal pathogen affecting a variety of pine species with devastating economical and biological consequences, especially if it were to be established in a country like Sweden where about 38% of the standing forest volume consist of pine. Pathogens like this one are already introduced in several European countries, and need to be monitored and identified early to prevent further forest damage – a challenge that Forest pathologists have accepted. Keywords: Climate change, Sustainable forest management, Research, Monitoring and data collection, Deforestation and forest degradation ID: 3499048
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    Forest invasive species in the NENA Region
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The forest sector in the NENA region has similar ecological, social and economic contexts and functions. The NENA region is particularly vulnerable to climate change and, the climate is predicted to become even hotter and drier. Insect pests, pathogens and invasive plants can cause major damages in these ecosystems. The dieback of forest trees was caused by pests (insects and pathogens) and affects conifers, oak and Eucalypt species. Cedrus libani and Abies cilicica in Lebanon were affected by Cephalcia tannourinensis. Cedrus atlantica forests in Algeria and Morocco was affected by Thaumetopoea pityocampa and T. bonjeani. The fungus Cylindrocladium buxicola caused Boxwood Blight Buxus hyrcana in Iran. Juniperus procera in Saudi Arabia was mainly affected by fungal species, about 21 species belonging to 12 genera associated with roots and twigs were identified. The conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis was detected on Pinus pinea, P. pinaster, P. brutia and P. halepensis in Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia. Eucalyptus spp. of North Africa, Lebanon, Syria and Iran countries are threatened by Phoracantha semipunctata, P. recurva, Leptocybe invasa, Ophelimus maskelli and Glycaspis brimblecombei. In Sudan, dieback on Acacia nilotica was caused by silting and Roots rot belonging to Phytophtora, Pythium and Rhizoctonia genus. Deudorix livia was detected in Tunisia on Acacia farnesiana. Recently, the awful cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae was detected on Opuntia ficus-indica in Lebanon, Morocco, Jordan and Palestine. Besides these pests, the NENA region suffer from invasive plant species (trees, shrubs, herbaceous). Seventeen species were detected in Algeria, Yemen, Syria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. To protect the forest against invasive species and to elaborate a specific standard approach for monitoring and management, the network in the NENA region should be standardized and the regional cooperation should be improved. Keywords: Climate change, Adaptive and integrated management, Biodiversity conservation, Agriculture, Landscape management ID: 3623155

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