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The challenges of managing agricultural price and production risks in sub-Saharan Africa








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    The challenges of managing agricultural price and production risks in sub-Saharan Africa 2014
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    Agricultural production is prone to several risks which affect both producers and consumers. In order to enhance investment and achieve a sustained increase in production, coherent and integrated long-term strategies and policies are required to reduce risk aversion and build resilience among African rural producers. Furthermore, the critical importance of social protection and its complementarity to risk management initiatives must be recognised. This paper investigates possible tools and instr uments to deal with various production and price risks. Market-based approaches are crucial for risk management options to thrive, but the country experiences examined have highlighted that most of the risk management instruments are not in place or are not fully developed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Farmers are not protected against production and price shocks and this underscores the critical role of governments in agricultural risk management. In view of the high correlation between production, pr ice and market risks, African governments need to adopt an integrated and holistic approach in support of risk management interventions through incentives and by strengthening agricultural markets and financial institutions. Risk management tools need to be mainstreamed into agricultural policies and programmes as currently advocated by the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Planning and Coordination Agency (NPCA).
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Pulse crops for sustainable farms in Sub-Saharan Africa 2018
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    Food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa is a problem affecting 153 million individuals (ca. 25%). This problem could be worsen by the ongoing soil degradation, being cause by the reduction of soil organic matter and insufficient nutrient supply. Over 75% of the agricultural land in Africa could be classified as degraded by 2020. This situation can compromise food production in sub-Saharan Africa, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and the sustainability of existing agricultural production systems. The use of fertilizer could revert this situation; however, Africa has almost no capacity to produce fertilizers (African fertilizers production facilities work mainly in blending fertilizers) and therefore fertilizers are produced elsewhere outside Africa and transported from long distances at great expenses. This situation grants to sub-Saharan Africa farmers only a very limited access to fertilizers, thus increasing the risk of soil degradation. Pulses have a long history in sub-Saharan Africa due to their multiple benefits. Pulses, and legumes in general, can play an important role in agriculture because their ability to biologically fix atmospheric nitrogen and to enhance the biological turnover of phosphorous; thus they could become the cornerstone of sustainable agriculture in Africa. In this sense, there is a body of literature that points to diversification of existing production systems; particularly legumes species, which provides critical environmental services, including soil erosion control and soil nutrient recapitalization. This publication is a review of some of the promising strategies to support pulses cultivation and utilization on smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa. The review is part of the legacy of the International Year of Pulses (IYP), which sought to recognize the contribution that pulses make to human well-being and the environment. One challenge faced worldwide is that the diversity of pulses are not captured well in statistics. There is not a clear picture of what is grown and where, and this leads to an under-estimation of their importance for sub-Saharan Africa and consequently reduce research investment in pulses. Existing agricultural production systems are dominated by cereals, and represent opportunities for enhanced crop diversification, through promoting local and novel pulse varieties. Mixed-maize is a system that is rapidly growing and poses one such opportunity, particularly for beans. This is due in part to the large number of bean varieties that have been developed to meet local and regional market requirements, through decades long partnerships foster by Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance (PABRA). Bean research has included pioneering participatory plant breeding, extension linked to participatory community organizations and value chains, as well as attention to informal seed systems. This example shows how pulse research can make a different on smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa, by broadening the range of genetic options and supporting innovation. There are many such farmerx approved varieties available that deserve greater promotion, as do technologies such as doubled up legume system innovation recently released by the Malawi government. At the same time, this review has highlighted that variety release has lagged for some pulse crops, and that there is urgent need for more research on adoption, barriers to adoption, and on impact of adoption. Research priorities suggested include greater recognition and attention to expanding properties associated with multipurpose types of pulses, which are popular in sub-Saharan Africa. Different types of pulses are needed for different functions and in general, multipurpose pulses are the best to respond to the diverse needs of farmers, including food, fuel and fodder, and ecosystem services such as pollination. There is a trade-off between the harvest index and other functions, which have too often been overlooked by researchers and decision makers who tend to focus almost exclusively on increasing grain yields. Pest tolerance, as well as extension of educational approaches and agronomic advice to strengthen integrated pest management (IPM) is another area urgently needing attention. Finally, the role of specific legumes and associated biochemical properties in promoting ecosystem health, community health – this is a crucial area for research that will provide urgently needed options for women farmers – and for sustainability of communities.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    Digital agriculture in FAO projects in sub-Saharan Africa 2024
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    No results found.

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is spearheading efforts to leverage digitalization for sustainable agrifood systems. This publication provides a roadmap for accelerating the adoption of impactful digital solutions across the Africa region.With Wageningen University and Research (WUR), the publication offers an in-depth exploration of the current landscape of FAO’s digital agriculture interventions across sub-Saharan Africa, dissecting key projects and their impact on crop production, risk reduction, and value chain enhancement.Through an extensive survey and analysis of 72 projects spanning various agricultural subsectors, the publication sheds light on the prevalence of digital tools in enhancing crop production and livestock management, and on the disparities in digital adoption across different subregions.The publication underscores the critical role of digital literacy and infrastructure in driving the success of digital agriculture initiatives, emphasizing the imperative of inclusivity. It also highlights the need for fostering awareness, building capacity, and advocating for improved digital access and governance to unlock the full potential of digital solutions for Africa.Among the key findings are the predominant use of simpler digital technologies such as mobile applications and SMS services, signalling the importance of user-friendly solutions tailored to the needs of farmers. However, it also underscores the necessity of embracing more advanced technologies to address complex challenges such as climate resilience and supply chain management.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Meeting
    The challenges of managing agricultural price and production risks in sub-Saharan Africa 2014
    Also available in:

    Agricultural production is prone to several risks which affect both producers and consumers. In order to enhance investment and achieve a sustained increase in production, coherent and integrated long-term strategies and policies are required to reduce risk aversion and build resilience among African rural producers. Furthermore, the critical importance of social protection and its complementarity to risk management initiatives must be recognised. This paper investigates possible tools and instr uments to deal with various production and price risks. Market-based approaches are crucial for risk management options to thrive, but the country experiences examined have highlighted that most of the risk management instruments are not in place or are not fully developed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Farmers are not protected against production and price shocks and this underscores the critical role of governments in agricultural risk management. In view of the high correlation between production, pr ice and market risks, African governments need to adopt an integrated and holistic approach in support of risk management interventions through incentives and by strengthening agricultural markets and financial institutions. Risk management tools need to be mainstreamed into agricultural policies and programmes as currently advocated by the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Planning and Coordination Agency (NPCA).
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    Pulse crops for sustainable farms in Sub-Saharan Africa 2018
    Also available in:

    Food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa is a problem affecting 153 million individuals (ca. 25%). This problem could be worsen by the ongoing soil degradation, being cause by the reduction of soil organic matter and insufficient nutrient supply. Over 75% of the agricultural land in Africa could be classified as degraded by 2020. This situation can compromise food production in sub-Saharan Africa, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and the sustainability of existing agricultural production systems. The use of fertilizer could revert this situation; however, Africa has almost no capacity to produce fertilizers (African fertilizers production facilities work mainly in blending fertilizers) and therefore fertilizers are produced elsewhere outside Africa and transported from long distances at great expenses. This situation grants to sub-Saharan Africa farmers only a very limited access to fertilizers, thus increasing the risk of soil degradation. Pulses have a long history in sub-Saharan Africa due to their multiple benefits. Pulses, and legumes in general, can play an important role in agriculture because their ability to biologically fix atmospheric nitrogen and to enhance the biological turnover of phosphorous; thus they could become the cornerstone of sustainable agriculture in Africa. In this sense, there is a body of literature that points to diversification of existing production systems; particularly legumes species, which provides critical environmental services, including soil erosion control and soil nutrient recapitalization. This publication is a review of some of the promising strategies to support pulses cultivation and utilization on smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa. The review is part of the legacy of the International Year of Pulses (IYP), which sought to recognize the contribution that pulses make to human well-being and the environment. One challenge faced worldwide is that the diversity of pulses are not captured well in statistics. There is not a clear picture of what is grown and where, and this leads to an under-estimation of their importance for sub-Saharan Africa and consequently reduce research investment in pulses. Existing agricultural production systems are dominated by cereals, and represent opportunities for enhanced crop diversification, through promoting local and novel pulse varieties. Mixed-maize is a system that is rapidly growing and poses one such opportunity, particularly for beans. This is due in part to the large number of bean varieties that have been developed to meet local and regional market requirements, through decades long partnerships foster by Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance (PABRA). Bean research has included pioneering participatory plant breeding, extension linked to participatory community organizations and value chains, as well as attention to informal seed systems. This example shows how pulse research can make a different on smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa, by broadening the range of genetic options and supporting innovation. There are many such farmerx approved varieties available that deserve greater promotion, as do technologies such as doubled up legume system innovation recently released by the Malawi government. At the same time, this review has highlighted that variety release has lagged for some pulse crops, and that there is urgent need for more research on adoption, barriers to adoption, and on impact of adoption. Research priorities suggested include greater recognition and attention to expanding properties associated with multipurpose types of pulses, which are popular in sub-Saharan Africa. Different types of pulses are needed for different functions and in general, multipurpose pulses are the best to respond to the diverse needs of farmers, including food, fuel and fodder, and ecosystem services such as pollination. There is a trade-off between the harvest index and other functions, which have too often been overlooked by researchers and decision makers who tend to focus almost exclusively on increasing grain yields. Pest tolerance, as well as extension of educational approaches and agronomic advice to strengthen integrated pest management (IPM) is another area urgently needing attention. Finally, the role of specific legumes and associated biochemical properties in promoting ecosystem health, community health – this is a crucial area for research that will provide urgently needed options for women farmers – and for sustainability of communities.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    Digital agriculture in FAO projects in sub-Saharan Africa 2024
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is spearheading efforts to leverage digitalization for sustainable agrifood systems. This publication provides a roadmap for accelerating the adoption of impactful digital solutions across the Africa region.With Wageningen University and Research (WUR), the publication offers an in-depth exploration of the current landscape of FAO’s digital agriculture interventions across sub-Saharan Africa, dissecting key projects and their impact on crop production, risk reduction, and value chain enhancement.Through an extensive survey and analysis of 72 projects spanning various agricultural subsectors, the publication sheds light on the prevalence of digital tools in enhancing crop production and livestock management, and on the disparities in digital adoption across different subregions.The publication underscores the critical role of digital literacy and infrastructure in driving the success of digital agriculture initiatives, emphasizing the imperative of inclusivity. It also highlights the need for fostering awareness, building capacity, and advocating for improved digital access and governance to unlock the full potential of digital solutions for Africa.Among the key findings are the predominant use of simpler digital technologies such as mobile applications and SMS services, signalling the importance of user-friendly solutions tailored to the needs of farmers. However, it also underscores the necessity of embracing more advanced technologies to address complex challenges such as climate resilience and supply chain management.

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