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Improve small and medium scale poultry farms with 3-zone biosecurity implementation

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    Policy brief
    Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050: Laws and flaws, implementation gaps in biosecurity-related legislation in the poultry sector
    Evidence from Kenya and Uganda
    2021
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    Livestock sector decision-makers can reduce public health risks by ensuring that stakeholders comply with good practices that prevent disease entry and spread. In most countries, animal health policies, strategies and legislation are, to some extent, comprehensive and require that most stakeholders along the value chain adopt such good practices. However, they are often poorly implemented. Understanding stakeholders' behaviour as they perform various functions along the livestock value chain is crucial to facilitate the implementation of policies. The FAO Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050 team collected data in 2-2 districts of Kenya and Uganda on stakeholders’ compliance in the private sector with a set of biosecurity practices along the poultry value chain. This brief presents an overview of the survey results in the two countries. The data shows that in both countries, the level of compliance among poultry value chain actors is usually high for practices that have direct implications on birds health and, hence, profit. Compliance is low with disease reporting and obtaining licenses and health certificates, suggesting room for improvement of interactions between the public and private sector. Producers showed the highest compliance with the law as compared to other value chain actors, such as slaughterers and traders. FAO will collaborate with local government officials and private sector actors to co-create solutions that improve the implementation of legislation that targets reduction of livestock related public health risks.
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    Policy brief
    Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050: Livestock biosecurity from a business perspective
    A case study of poultry producers in Egypt, Kenya and Uganda
    2022
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    The growing population, urbanization and increasing incomes will result in an increased demand for animal source food products. To ensure the development of a healthy and productive livestock sector, investments are needed from the public and private sectors. We assess whether poultry producers are in a position to play a role in the development of healthy poultry systems by investing in biosecurity through examples of enterprise budgets of producers from Egypt, Kenya and Uganda. In all three countries, the most important revenue item is sale of broilers (>98 percent of total revenues). The two largest cost items are the purchase of day-old chicks (DOCs) and feed, covering 75 to 92 percent of total costs. Feed is the largest cost item at bigger farms (~5 000 birds per cycle) while purchase of DOCs is the largest cost item at smaller farms (~500 birds per cycle). The observed poultry businesses are profitable, profit margins range from 7 to 56 percent, and annual profits equal 2.3 (Kenya large farm) to 3.5 (Egypt) times the GDP per capita in the countries. Investment in biosecurity can potentially increase profits, however, the impact on profit is very context specific, depending on the different features of the businesses, their exposure to disease risk and market characteristics. We illustrate an example of a small farm in Uganda where profits increased by 10.8 percent after adopting three biosecurity practices.
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    Developing the Layer Farm Assessment Tool (LFAT)
    Improving biosecurity and management in commercial layer farms in Indonesia
    2020
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    In order to minimize the potential spread of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases and provide products that are safe, healthy, wholesome and halal, commercial layer farms in Indonesia need to ensure that they have good farm management practices, biosecurity, and animal health protocols in place on their farms. Good management and biosecurity can also provide positive environmental outcomes and maintain the health and financial viability of farm owners and workers. In response to this, the Food and Agriculture Organization – Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (FAO ECTAD) Indonesia and the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DGLAHS) developed a tool to assess the management of small to medium size layer farms. The layer farm assessment tool (LFAT) evaluates the farm activities and characteristics and provides an objective measure of farm management and biosecurity. Not only does it allow comparison of farms but it also can be used by advisory staff to suggest improvements in order to reach the quality expected of HPAI-free compartmentalization farms and receive NKV (veterinary certification) farm accreditation. The LFAT is adapted from the HPAI-free certification examination check list used by the Directorate of Animal Health (DAH, DGL&AHS). HPAI-free compartment certification is an assessment standard for poultry farms under Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture regulation No.28/Permentan/OT.140/5/2008. The adaptation is to ensure that this tool is particularly relevant to small and medium-scale layer farms. The LFAT consists of 50 sub-components amalgamated into three components - farm management, biosecurity and poultry health management. Sub-components and hence components, are ranked on a scale of zero to five with a score of 4 and above classified as ‘good’. A score between 3 and 4 as ‘average’ and below 3, the sub-component is regarded as ‘poor’. The LFAT was piloted in Blitar (East Java), Kendal (Central Java) and Purbalingga districts (Central Java) in order to test its usefulness and applicability to layer farms. The LFAT has proved to be useful in providing an objective measure on which to base advisor and farmer training programs that lead to improved farm management, reduction in disease spread and more efficient value chains and vaccination programs. It can also be used as the measuring tool for farmers to move towards NKV and HPAI-free compartmentalization certification.

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