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Guidelines: land evaluation for extensive grazing

FAO Soils Bulletin No. 58









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    Legume Trees and other Fodder Trees as Protein Sources for Livestock 1992
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    Fodder trees and fodder shrubs have always played a significant role in feeding domestic animals. In fact, trees and shrubs are increasingly recognized as important components of animal feeding, particularly as suppliers of protein and especially in harsh environmental conditions. In such situations, the available grazing is not generally sufficient to meet the maintenance requirements of animals, at least for part of the year. This occurs, for example, in some mountainous regions and in the dry tropicswhere the grazing is also sometimes very degraded. Thus, in extensive animal production systems in the dry areas of Africa, it is generallye stimated that ligneous materials contribute up to 90% of production and account for 40-50% of the total available feed. Such figures illustrate the existing and urgent need not only for better knowledge but also for better use of such potential, particularly in the context of environmental degradation which is affecting our planet. On the other ha nd, in the humid tropics of Latin America, the South-cast Asia and Africa, foddersfrom trees and shrubs from leguminous species - are beginning to be utilized more dietary nitrogen supplements for ruminants. In this respect, new a significant move to look for new sources of protein from shrubs. However, given the increasing demand for forage and availability of low quality basal feed materials which require protein supplementation, high protein fodders from leguminous trees and shrubs could have a much more significant role in animal feeding systems throughout the developing world. In this respect, there is a need for more research to develop technically viable solutions. These solutions must also be economically and socially acceptable; they must preserve natural resources and protect the environment. In other words, the challenge is the sustainable development of fodder trees and shrubs.........
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    A protocol for measurement, monitoring, reporting and verification of soil organic carbon in agricultural landscapes
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    This document provides a conceptual framework and standard methodologies for the monitoring, reporting and verification of changes in SOC stocks and GHG emissions/removals from agricultural projects that adopt sustainable soil management practices (SSM) at farm level. It is intended to be applied in different agricultural lands, including annual and perennial crops (food, fibre, forage and bioenergy crops), paddy rice, grazing lands with livestock including pastures, grasslands, rangelands, shrublands, silvopasture and agroforestry. Although developed for projects carried out at farm level, potential users include investors, research institutions, government agencies, consultants, agricultural companies, NGOs, individual farmers or farmer associations, supply chain and other users who are interested in measuring and estimating SOC stocks and changes and GHG emissions in response to management practices. The document is an outcome of the successful Global Symposium on Soil Organic Carbon (GSOC17), which was held in Rome in March 2017. The document is of technical nature in support of the Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration work. Its use is not mandatory but of voluntary nature.
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    Grassland of the world 2005
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    This book brings together information on the contrasting characteristics, condition, present use and problems of the world's main natural grasslands. Since grassland is commercialized through the grazing animal, particular attention is paid to the livestock production systems associated with each main type. Grazing resources are more than simply edible herbage: many other factors have to be taken into account, notably water in all areas, and shelter in winter-cold climates. Seasonality of forage supply is a characteristic of almost all grazing lands, so the strategies for dealing with lean seasons are described. The main problems of each type are mentioned and possible strategies for their sustainable management discussed - taking into account their multiple functions, not only livestock production. The book is primarily aimed at agricultural scientists, educationalists, extensionists and decisionmakers with interests in responsible use of extensive grasslands.

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