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Public expenditure analysis for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agriculture sector: a case study of Kenya

Experiences of integrating agriculture in sectoral and national adaptation planning processes










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    Public expenditure analysis for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agricultural sector – A case study of Uganda 2021
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    This paper presents a methodology for public expenditure review and analysis for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agricultural sector. It outlines the basic methodological concepts, including the classification of public expenditures in the context of their links to climate change adaptation and mitigation. It also illustrates how such analysis can usefully contribute to policy decision making to better achieve the climate change adaptation and mitigation goals using the case study of Uganda. The proposed classification allows for analysing the level and the composition of public expenditures that influence adaptation capacity of the sector to climate change, and actions that increase or decrease greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in agriculture. This, in turn, allows for assessing whether the sector is stimulated in a way that allows achieving a country’s climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives and form a basis for further evaluation of the effectiveness of individual measures in reaching these objectives.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Safeguarding livelihoods and promoting resilience through National Adaptation Plans–Case study: Kenya
    English
    2017
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    The case study aims to show the links between NAP and NAP-Ag programme activities and the resulting impacts. Given that the NAP-Ag programme in Kenya has only been running since mid-2016, it is too early to assess the impacts, however lessons can be drawn from the suite of activities that are being developed or implemented at the national and county level. The preparation of this case study is based on interviews with the UNDP – FAO NAP-Ag country coordinator, representatives from national Minis tries with climate change adaptation responsibilities, as well as extensive review of country reports and publications.
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    Border and related measures in the context of adaptation and mitigation to climate change
    The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets (SOCO): Background paper
    2018
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    Although international trade is not specifically mentioned in the Paris Climate Agreement, trade can play a facilitating role in achieving the mitigation and adaptation objectives of signatories to the Agreement. Trade policies can also undermine those objectives. The focus of this paper is on examining how the facilitating role of trade can be achieved. One of the challenges created by the ‘bottom-up’ approach of self-declared national mitigation targets adopted in the Agreement is that if the economic costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are internalized in production and consumption, the implicit price of carbon will differ across countries. This creates the potential for trade distortions. Domestic mitigation policies in importers will almost inevitably result in some carbon leakage, i.e. offsets to reductions in domestic emissions through additional emissions generated in supplying imports. But an important distinction needs to be made between carbon reallocation and carbon misallocation resulting from changes in trade volumes. In the reallocation case, trade leads to a shift in production to lower-emitting producers thereby contributing to global mitigation. In the misallocation case, the opposite occurs. This paper analyses how various border measures, including border tax adjustments (BTAs) might be used to reduce potential carbon misallocation. The conclusion is that technical and legal constraints on the effective application of border measures for food and agricultural products to prevent carbon misallocation are extremely challenging and their use could open the door to protectionism. The use of carbon standards and labelling offers an alternative approach to reducing misallocation and promoting reallocation. It poses fewer technical difficulties and reduces the potential for legal challenges. An added advantage of labelling is that it can help to promote changes in consumption that will be needed to reduce the carbon footprint of food and agriculture. The use of the approach could be facilitated through the adoption of international standards for carbon measurement and labelling, such as those being developed through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Labelling is not a panacea and may have limited effectiveness when consumers base their consumption decisions primarily on the basis of price. For this reason, the use of domestic policy measures that increase carbon efficiency in agriculture (reduce emissions per unit of output) and limit changes in land use that contribute to emissions will also be important for achieving mitigation aims under the Paris Agreement. An increasing number of regional trade agreements (RTAs) have incorporated environmental provisions, with the most common types of provisions focusing on environmental cooperation. Recent agreements recognise the importance of mutually supportive trade and environmental policies, and national commitments to multinational environmental agreements. RTAs could play a supporting role to the Paris Climate Agreement, by fostering international cooperation on climate mitigation measures in the context of freer trade.

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