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Principes and practices of small- and medium-scale fruit juice processing













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    Book (stand-alone)
    Livestock country reviews - Poultry sector: Nepal 2014
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    The poultry sector continues to grow and industrialize in many parts of the world. An increasing human population, greater purchasing power and urbanization have been strong drivers of growth. Advances in breeding have given rise to birds that meet specialized purposes and are increasingly productive, but that need expert management. The development and transfer of feed, slaughter and processing technologies have increased safety and efficiency of poultry production, but favour large-scale units rather than small-scale producers. These developments have led the poultry industry and the associated feed industry to scale up rapidly, to concentrate themselves close to input sources or final markets, and to integrate vertically. One element of the structural change has been a move towards contract farming in the rearing phase of boiler production, allowing farmers with medium-sized flocks to gain access to advanced technology with a relatively low initial investment. A clear division is de veloping between industrialized production systems of large and medium size, feeding into integrated value chains, and extensive production systems supporting livelihoods and supplying local or niche markets. The primary role of the former is to supply cheap and safe food to populations distant from the source of supply, while the latter acts as a livelihood safety net, often as part of a diverse portfolio of income sources. Extensive small-scale, rural, family-based poultry systems continue to play a crucial role in sustaining livelihoods in developing countries, supplying poultry products in rural but also periurban and urban areas, and providing important support to women farmers. Small-scale poultry production will continue to offer opportunities for income generation and quality human nutrition as long as there is rural poverty. In order to develop appropriate strategies and options for poultry sector development, including disease prevention control measures, a better understandi ng is required of the different poultry production systems, their associated market chains, and the position of poultry within human societies. This review for Nepal is part of a series of Country Reviews commissioned by the Animal Production and Health Division (AGA). It is intended as a resource document for those seeking information about the poultry sector at a national level, and is not exhaustive. The statistical data that are included from FAOSTAT are partly unofficial data or FAO estimat ed data. For details the reader is advised to consult the official FAOSTAT database at http://faostat.fao.org/. Some topics of the review are only partially covered or not covered at all and this document is subject to ongoing updating. The author and FAO/AGA1 welcome your contributions and feedback.
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    Good packaging practices for micro, small and medium-sized food processing enterprises in the Caribbean Community and Common Market 2024
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    Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) continue to serve as a major source of employment and income generation in the agriculture and tourism sectors in countries of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM). Most MSMEs are small businesses run by families or by a few individuals. While this helps to keep labour and overhead costs to a minimum, it creates a suboptimum economy of scale. Competition is also increased because of the large number of small operations and challenges that hinder penetration of the export market, especially with the increasing complexities of international standards demanded by developed countries. Additionally, rising standards of living in many CARICOM countries have increased demand from domestic consumers for higher quality food and assurances of food safety. This creates the need for urgent measures that will help MSMEs in CARICOM to become more efficient in crop production, supply chain management, food processing and packaging techniques and to gain a better understanding of the changing nature of the domestic, regional and international markets.This technical manual focuses on food packaging and seeks to highlight its critical role in reducing food loss and waste. Users of this manual will also be exposed to packaging techniques that help improve the marketability of agricultural commodities produced and processed in the region. This potential has been fostered by an increasing middle-class population, a vibrant market for tourism, a diversity of cultures and, thanks to an increasing diaspora, increasing markets in importing countries.
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    Establishment of a New Analytical Laboratory at a Food Production Facility in Dekemhare City, Eritrea - TCP/ERI/3609 2020
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    Food safety and quality are essential for food security, public health and economic development. Improving laboratory-testing capacity contributes to increasing the supply of safe, wholesome high-quality food by reducing the impact of food-borne diseases that can cause illness and death. Food quality analysis and management also help to stem the economic consequences of food-borne illness and food insecurity, contributing to a healthier, more prosperous and productive nation. Ensuring the safety and quality of foods also promotes international trade and access to new markets, which provides a means to strengthen livelihoods all along the value chain, alleviating poverty and hunger. Eritrea is a young East African country, gaining independence in May 1991 after a 30-year war with Ethiopia. The development of industry in Eritrea, including the food industry and laboratories, dates back to the Italian colonial period (1890-1941), when Eritrea had a relatively prosperous economy. However, during British rule (1941-1952) and the Ethiopian administration that followed, a lack of investment led to a deterioration of its infrastructure. Eritrea’s current industrial base is made up of numerous small- and medium-sized enterprises, and the Government is making a significant effort to increase their contribution to the national economy – including private-sector food production and processing enterprises. However, Eritrea’s Government is facing several macro-economic challenges, which are affecting the operations of various ministries including Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Health. As a result, preventive activities such as those related to food safety receive less priority than curative medical services. This has seriously affected the ministries’ operation and monitoring of food safety analysis. The national food control system needs an urgent review and redesign. Establishment of basic operational and management systems, including training and capacity building of laboratory staff and laboratory accreditation to international standards, are needed to strengthen this system and enhance its capacity for ensuring that safe and nutritiousfood reaches consumers. Fisheries and agriculture are important economic sectors that have good potential for producing export earnings with relatively low levels of investment. However, ever-increasing international food safety standards and trade regulations are seriously hampering the export of agricultural products and hence the country's efforts to gain market access.

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