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On-farm practices for the safe use of wastewater in urban and peri-urban horticulture

A training handbook for Farmer Field Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa











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    On-farm practices for the safe use of waste water in urban and peri-urban horticulture
    A training handbook for farmer field schools
    2012
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    Many farmers in developing countries grow crops, especially vegetables, in urban and peri-urban environments using wastewater, raw or diluted, to irrigate their crops. Such wastewater is often heavily contaminated with disease-causing organisms and chemical agents that can seriously harm the health of the farmers,the traders who handle crops and the people who consume them. It is therefore very important for urban and peri-urban vegetable farmers to be aware of the health-risks associated wi th using wastewater for their irrigating crops and to know how to use wastewater safely at farm level to reduce those health risks. This handbook focuses on low-cost and low-tech on-farm wastewater treatment and safe irrigation practices that farmers can adopt to grow safer products.
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    Wastewater Reuse in the Near East Region: Experience and Issues
    Regional Symposium on Water Recycling in the Mediterranean Region
    2002
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    Wastewater in most countries of the Near East Region (NER) is being more and more recognized as of vital importance to be treated and made safe for reuse. It contributes considerably to the water budget in several countries, particularly those suffering from water scarcity. Treated wastewater is used directly in irrigation of farms or landscape green areas. Limited indirect use includes recharge of groundwater aquifers to control over-draft and salt intrusion in coastal areas. A large share of w astewater is still not treated and part of it is used in an uncontrolled manner, including for the production of uncooked food crops the consumption of which poses health risks. Expansion of treated wastewater reuse in the region is linked to a number of issues and constraints. The high cost of treatment and management of reclaimed wastewater is one of the major limitations facing the week economy of most countries. Unclear polices, institutional conflicts and lack of regulatory frameworks con stitute other important constraints that hinder implementation and proper operation of wastewater reuse projects. The manpower capacity is at varying levels between countries, but additional training and capacity strengthening are generally needed throughout the region. This paper gives an overview of the existing practices of wastewater reuse in the NER and of the constraints facing it. It concludes with recommendations and policy options that are likely to lift these constraints and to make a better use of the wastewater potential.
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    Urban and peri-urban agriculture case studies – Overview, conclusions and recommendations
    An annex to Urban and peri-urban agriculture – From production to food systems
    2022
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    The population of the world is steadily growing. Most of this population growth is concentrated in cities and urban areas, which means, 68 percent of the world’s 9.7 billion inhabitants will be urban dwellers by 2050. However, many of those currently living in cities especially, though not exclusively, in the Global South, are malnourished, impoverished and food insecure. Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is a vital strategy for building the resilience of cities’ food supply, reducing poverty and increasing employment, improving nutritional outcomes, and mitigating environmental degradation of urban spaces. While UPA is no silver bullet, when combined with effective city-region planning, the food system can more effciently meet the needs of diverse actors in urban areas. To provide additional insights into how UPA is managed as input for the “Urban and peri-urban agriculture: from production to food systems”, Rikolto conducted a series of case studies in six cities around the world, which are Quito (the Republic of Ecuador), Leuven (the Kingdom of Belgium), Dakar (the Republic of Senegal), Arusha (the United Republic of Tanzania), Surakarta (the Republic of Indonesia) and Tegucigalpa(the Republic of Honduras). This report first gives detailed accounts of each city and its UPA policies, challenges and practices. These are grouped according to the themes of land (availability, tenure); water(irrigation, access); labour(seasonal versus full-time, worker profile); finance (expenses, revenues, access to credit); agronomy(UPA practices, technical assistance) andvalue chain (commercialization, availability of inputs, consumer profiles). While policy mechanisms and support interventions are included among these themes, a policy overview presents the final theme of governance. These city accounts are followed by a comparative overview of all six cities and culminate in generalizable lessons-learned, interesting findings, and actionable recommendations for planners and policy-makers.

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