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Livestock breeds of China











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    Mapping the benefits: developing a new decision tool for tsetse and trypanosomosis interventions | La mise en carte des bénéfices: un nouvel outil de prise de décisions pour la lutte contre les glossines et les trypanosomoses 2006
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of linking quantitative economic variables to a geographical information system (GIS) spatial framework in order to provide new insights and reinforce the decision-making process for tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T&T) interventions. Hitherto, GIS studies have mapped a series of ecological, demographic and socio-economic indicators, but have stopped short of mapping a derived measure quantified in monetary units. Furthermore, the economic aspects of T&T control have historically been dealt with separately from their other effects, with results usually expressed in terms of benefit–cost ratios or extra income per head of livestock. Even when they have been expressed in terms of US dollars per square kilometre (US$/km2) these results have not been mapped; instead they have been used as inputs for benefit–cost type analyses. In contrast, the approach developed here combines – for the first time – economic herd models with mapping of both breed/production systems and the expansion of livestock populations under various scenarios. The first phase of the work tackled Benin, Ghana and Togo. The second phase extended the work to cover parts of Burkina Faso and Mali. A range of standardised livestock population, production and price data were collected at country, province and district level from each of these five countries, together with the most recent livestock population, cropping and disease data. These were amalgamated with the corresponding data layers derived and adapted from the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis Information System (PAAT-IS). At the mapping stage, the data were extrapolated to cover the areas around the five countries, notably including Côte d’Ivoire for which considerable data already existed in the authors’ archives and databases. Four breed/production systems were defined and mapped: a predominantly taurine system with minimal use of animal traction; a crossbred taurine×zebu system with moderate use of animal traction; a crossbred zebu×taurine system with very high use of animal traction; and a zebu system with moderate animal traction use. By combining these definitions with the new data and the PAAT-IS data layers, a new distribution map was produced that linked trypanotolerant and susceptible cattle breeds to production systems. L’objectif de la présente étude était d’examiner la possibilité de lier des variables économiques quantitatives au cadre spatial d’un système d’information géographique (SIG) afin de fournir de nouvelles connaissances et de consolider le processus de prise de décisions dans les interventions contre les glossines et la trypanosomose. Jusqu’ici, les études de SIG ont cartographié une série d’indicateurs écologiques, démographiques et socioéconomiques mais ne sont pas allées jusqu’à mettre en carte une mesure synthétique quantifiée en unités monétaires. En outre, dans le passé, les aspects économiques de la lutte contre les glossines et la trypanosomose ont été traités séparément de leurs autres effets ; les résultats étaient généralement exprimés en termes de rapports bénéfices-coûts ou de revenus supplémentaires par tête de bétail. Même lorsque présentés en dollars par kilomètre carré ($EU/km2), ces résultats n’ont jamais été mis en carte, étant plutôt utilisés dans des analyses bénéfices-coûts. L’approche mise au point ici combine – pour la première fois – des modèles économiques de troupeaux avec une cartographie à la fois des systèmes de production/race et de l’expansion des populations de bétail selon divers scénarios. La première phase des travaux s’est concentrée sur le Bénin, le Ghana et le Togo. La seconde phase a étendu les travaux pour couvrir des parties du Burkina Faso et du Mali. Une gamme de données normalisées sur les populations, la production et les prix du bétail a été recueillie au niveau national, provincial et départemental de chacun de ces cinq pays. Les données les plus récentes sur la population de bétail, l’agriculture et la maladie ont été rassemblées. Ces données ont été amalgamées avec les couches de données correspondantes tirées et adaptées du Système d’Information du Programme de Lutte contre la Trypanosomose Africaine (PLTA-SI). Lors de la mise en carte, les données ont été extrapolées pour couvrir les régions entourant les cinq pays, y compris notamment la Côte d’Ivoire pour laquelle des données considérables existaient déjà dans les archives et les bases de données des auteurs. Quatre systèmes de production/race ont été définis et cartographiés : un système essentielle-ment taurin associé à une utilisation minimum de la traction animale ; un système de croisements taurins×zébus avec une utilisation modeste de la traction animale ; un système de croisements zébus×taurins avec une utilisation très importante de la traction animale ; et un système zébu avec une utilisation modeste de la traction animale. En combinant ces définitions avec les nouvelles données et les couches de données du PLTA-SI, une nouvelle carte de répartition, qui associe les races bovines trypanotolérantes et trypanosensibles à des systèmes de production, a été produite.
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    Project
    Strengthening Capacities for the Prevention of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Eritrea - TCP/ERI/3607 2021
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    In Eritrea, 75 percent of the population is engaged in livelihood activities within the agriculture, animal husbandry and fishing sectors, which account for 16 9 percent of the gross domestic product ( and 20 30 percent of export commodities Across the country’s six agro ecological zones, livestock rearing practices are variable, although cattle 71 percent), sheep 50 percent) and goats 60 percent) are predominantly raised in the western lowlands The livestock sector alone accounts for 39 percent of the agricultural GDP and 4 6 percent of the national GDP Peste des Petits Ruminants ( poses a major threat to sheep and goat production in Eritrea The disease was first confirmed in 1993 and, since its initial incursion in the Tsorona region, PPR outbreaks have caused extensive concerns across the country Critically, in newly infected areas, mortality rates have been estimated to reach as high as 90 percent In 2014 17 outbreaks were reported and the frequency of outbreaks were on the rise In response to the 2014 epidemic, 501 300 animals were vaccinated, but this only represented less than 8 percent of the national population, while the recommended target by the FAO/OIE Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR is 75 percent Recent assessments have indicated that PPR is often misdiagnosed and under reported by pastoralists, the national laboratory capacity for PPR diagnosis is limited, the national PPR surveillance system requires strengthening and preventing the spread of PPR will require more effective post vaccination evaluation The presence and threat of PPR affects the livelihood and food security of the Eritrean population Not only does it have direct effects on animal rearing production levels, it influences economic activities, such as trade, which take place beyond the level of daily activities performed by sheep and goat farmers In an effort to move closer toward PPR eradication, the project aims to strengthen the national capacity of Eritrea to prevent and control threats posed by the disease.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    The management of global animal genetic resource, Rome, Italy, April 1992
    Proceedings of an FAO Expert Consultation
    1992
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    The subject of this publication is the global management of animal genetic resources, namely of the domesticated livestock and poultry species and breeds. Attention is focussed upon the genetic resources themselves, upon the need to identify and to give priority to those which are threatened and to regular monitoring mechanisms for discerning changes in the status of animal populations. Practical issues of conservation are evaluated and the need to combine both preservation and improved use is e mphasized. Biotechnology prospects for use with animal genetic resources are described. Attention is given to the institutional, financial and administrative structures needed for a global programme and for its regional and national components. The papers presented in this publication were prepared and studied at the Expert Consultation by the authors and others. Participants attended in their personal capacities and covered all areas of the world and all the domestic species. The recommendation s are given in full and are directed towards Institutional Infrastructures, Monitoring Practices, Breed Development and Conservation Programmes, Biotechnology and Legal Aspects.

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