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Accounting of Water for Improved Management of Water Resources - TCP/PAK/3606









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    Booklet
    Multi-criteria decision analysis for selection of vulnerable districts: Transforming Indus Basin with climate resilient agriculture and water management 2020
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    Modelling of climate change scenarios for Pakistan indicates that if agriculture and water management in the Indus River Basin continue in a ‘business as usual’ mode, the increase in temperatures and changes in precipitation will pose serious threats to the future livelihoods of farmers and to the Pakistani agricultural sector. In this context, FAO Pakistan has proposed a project to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) on “Transforming the Indus Basin with Climate Resilient Agriculture and Water Management”. This project is designed to change that by moving away from ‘business as usual’ in the Basin and shifting agriculture and water management to a new paradigm in which producers are successfully adapting to climate change and are able to sustain their livelihoods. The project objective is to transform agriculture in the Basin by increasing resilience among the most vulnerable farmers and strengthening the Government’s capacity to support their communities to adapt. To ensure the success of the project, an appropriate selection of districts for project interventions is a crucial factor. The Technical team at FAO has employed a detailed Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) technique using GIS for the selection of the district areas. As an outcome of the detailed MCDA analysis, a GIS based vulnerability index has been developed for the districts. Based on the vulnerability index, eight districts in Punjab and Sindh are selected for the implementation of the project.
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    Book (series)
    Review of Tropical Reservoirs and Their Fisheries - The cases of Lake Nasser, Lake Volta and Indo-Gangetic Basin Reservoirs. 2011
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    Freshwaters contribute 15 percent of the world’s reported fish catch, or about 10.1 million tonnes in 2006, most of which comes from tropical systems. The true contribution of tropical inland fisheries is likely to be higher, as less than half of the inland capture production is actually reported. While reservoir fisheries are already an essential component of this production, the potential of most of them may even exceed their current catch levels. Opportunities exist to increase prod uctivity, provided that environmentally and socially sustainable management systems can be adopted. To realize this untapped potential, it is necessary to improve understanding of the processes influencing reservoir productivity in such a way as to involve both biological principles and stakeholder participation, as each reservoir has different properties and different research and management institutions. Seen in isolation, catch and productivity data of individual reservoirs may be difficult to interpret. The present technical paper attempts to address this issue by reviewing the knowledge accumulated in reservoirs in some very different tropical river basins: the Indus and Ganges/Brahmaputra Basin in India, the Nile River Basin in Eastern Africa and the Volta River Basin in West Africa. In particular, it focuses on many of the reservoirs of northern India and Pakistan in the Indus and Ganges systems, Lake Nasser in the Nile River and Lake Volta in the Volta R iver. Information collated from grey and published literature on the three basins is synthesized and standardized with reference to wider knowledge and up-to-date information on tropical reservoir fisheries. A considerable quantity of data and information were collected on many aspects of the systems of the three reservoirs, including hydrological, biophysical and limnological features, primary production, and fish and fisheries data. This information was condensed and synthesized wi th the aim of providing a baseline against which the ecological changes that have taken place since impoundment can be described and analysed. Efforts are made to explain changes in fish catch in relation to climatic variations, ecological succession and fishing effort. The review shows that biological data and information are generally available. However, as is also common elsewhere, all three cases suffer from the general tendency to isolate and compartmentalize research into separ ate disciplines. Usually, there is very limited cross-disciplinary flow of information or recognition of how results of various disciplines can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of fish populations, human communities and ecosystems and the productive activities that depend on them. This uniform tendency severely hampered the identification of relevant management actions. A more pragmatic and holistic understanding of reservoir ecosystems is needed in order to guide the choice of indicators and the development of monitoring systems that can inform management of changes in reservoir productivity and, hence, the potential catch. The next step would be to devise a hierarchy of indicators describing the different ecological and economic processes influencing fisheries catches and to organize monitoring systems around those indicators. Only by combining information across sectoral disciplines will it be possible to reach a better unders tanding of the processes that drive fish stocks, fisheries and reservoir productivity.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Water availability, use and challenges in Pakistan - Water sector challenges in the Indus Basin and impact of climate change 2021
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    This working paper takes stock of Pakistan's water resource availability, delineating water supply system and its sources including precipitation and river flows, and the impact of increasing climatic variability on the water supply system. In particular, the paper focuses on the current water usage and requirements in the agricultural sector, and how changing climatic conditions will affect the consumption patterns. With inflows expected to become more variable in the coming years, the severity of climatic extremities will become more pronounced, driving up water demands in addition to the demand increase from a rising population and urbanization. Over extraction of groundwater resources is also disturbing the water calculus and pushing the country towards a critical demand-supply gap.

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