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FAO Fact Sheets: Input for the WTO Ministerial Meeting in Cancún







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    The market for non-traditional agricultural exports 2004
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    The last decade has witnessed a steady decline in the dollar values of many of the traditional agricultural export crops (TAEs) from developing countries and has highlighted the risks of depending upon a very narrow export base for foreign exchange earnings. Breaking the dependence upon the traditional primary commodities and diversifying into higher value or added value exports is not easy. This report provides an overview of the market for non-traditional agricultural exports (NTAEs). In parti cular, the report focuses upon the trends in international trade in these products, the trade and import policies of the major destination buyers, the extent of the “adding-up” problem for selected NTAEs, the lessons learned, and the prospects for developing niche markets for organic and fair trade NTAEs. The report provides detailed statistical data on trends in the export of NTAEs during the ten-year period 1992 to 2001, both in volume and value terms, analyses the contribution of develop ing countries and least-developed countries (LDCs) to trade in NTAEs and identifies the leading developing country exporters. Trade and import policies of the key destination countries for NTAEs: the European Union, the United States and Japan are examined. Trade barriers such as tariffs and other import measures, including the complex area of phytosanitary controls, are examined and the impact of tariff liberalization, tariff escalation and the extent of tariff preferences for developing countr y exporters of NTAEs are discussed.
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    PRIVATE STANDARDS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPEAN UNION MARKETS FOR FRUIT AND VEGETABLES
    Implications for developing countries
    2007
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    Over the past 20 years the number of standards and certification programmes for agricultural production has grown rapidly. Producers who want to export are confronted not only by a plethora of import regulations, but also within import countries by different niche markets for which specific requirements have to be fulfilled. While the adoption of voluntary standards may grant export opportunities to farmers, they can also be considered barriers to entry for those who cannot apply them either because they are too onerous or because of the lack of knowledge about their requirements. In fact, some producers and exporters increasingly regard private standards as non‑tariff barriers to trade. New and more stringent standards are being developed year after year, and there is an urgent need to determine today, and in the future, the extent to which these govern world trade. This report gives an overview of standards and certification programmes relevant for fruit and v egetable producers and exporters in developing countries with a focus on the markets of the United States and the European Union. In addition, it gives an overview of current analytical work on standards and trade, reviews major assistance programmes related to standards and provides recommendations for further research.
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    Harmonized border fisheries inspectors guide for promotion of regional fish trade in Eastern-Southern Africa 2015
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    Fisheries are one of the most significant renewable resources that Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) and Indian Ocean (IO) countries have for food security, livelihoods and economic growth. Efforts however, need to be made to ensure that as the population in these countries grows, and demand for food and employment likewise grows, the benefits that fishery resources provide, are protected through sustainable management and value-addition. The IOC-led Program for the Implementation of a Regional Fisheries Strategy for the ESA-IO region (IRFS) [SMARTFISH] was launched in February 2011 with the aim of contributing to an increased level of social, economic and environmental development and regional integration in the region through the sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources. Underpinning the Program is the harmonization of the region’s strategies and the strengthening of regional integration especially in partnership with COMESA, EAC and IGAD. The ultimate beneficiaries are fisher men, coastal communities and wider populations in Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In terms of trade, the traditional focus on large international trading blocks and fostering trade from Africa to these blocks, has meant less attention has been paid to developing regional trade, which is thought to have great potentia l and consequently is a key focus of the program. Some of the most pressing issues facing regional fisheries trade relate to trade barriers in both regional and domestic markets. Average import tariffs for example between countries in the region are generally much higher than in developed countries and are thought to have weakened intra-regional trade significantly. Non-tariff barriers include challenges with border controls and documentation requirements which reduce competitiveness through inc reased costs to exporters. This document is the products of a regional initiative involving fisheries experts from seven countries: DR Congo, Malawi, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Based on the core principles of food inspection as well as internationally recognized best practices for safe and wholesome food, the guide promotes the recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the UN FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. It provides the necessary administrative and procedural guidelines for the preparation and execution of official controls by Border Fisheries Inspectors and we anticipate it will be an important resource for regional economic communities such as

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