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ເສດຖະກິດ-ສັງຄົມ ແລະ ບົດບາດຍິງຊາຍໃນການລ້ຽງປາ










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    Project
    Socio-economics and Gender in Aquaculture 1998
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    The gender and socio-economic roles of men and women in different forms of Lao aquaculture (pond, rice-cum-fish, mini-hatchery) have not been widely investigated. This socio-economic and gender analysis study of Lao aquaculture was conducted in five Lao provinces within the scope of the UNDP/FAO project Lao/97/007. The Lao PDR population is predominantly involved in agricultural activities and increasing food security and income levels of poorer farmers of all ethnic groups are key priorities. T he rural Lao PDR population depend primarily on rice cultivation coupled to a wide variety of other agricultural (pigs, poultry, buffalo etc) and wild food foraging activities for their food security. Both captured and cultivated fish is widely consumed and commands a premium price in markets. Easy access to fish for the family is one of the main reasons for both women's and men's interest in raising fish in Lao PDR. It is considered that there is a potential for increasing the scale and efficie ncy of aquaculture activities in Lao PDR. However, in most rural areas visited in Lao PDR during the study, aquaculture is considered as a side activity integrated with other agricultural activities. There are good opportunities to further integrate aquaculture into existing agricultural livelihood systems. The majority of men and women fish farmers interviewed conducted aquaculture primarily for household food security, with income generation as an added bonus only where surplus fish were produced. Fish production for food security is considered to require low labour intensity once established. There are high levels of interest among women farmers towards aquaculture. However there are high labour and financial entry costs for pond based aquaculture, which only some farmers may be able to sustain. Income generation from fish production may also incur higher labour demand. Both women and men are involved in aquaculture, although each may have different roles at different st ages of the fish production cycle. There are few cultural constraints to women's participation in most aquaculture activities. In Lao PDR men select the site for pond construction and as heads of households are regarded as owners of ponds. While men often make the major decisions concerning the production system, the production from ponds also depends on the time and effort allocated by women and children for pond management and for feeding of the fish. Men are responsible for harvesting the ove rall yield; women are often responsible for harvesting fish for household consumption. Women control the cash income from the selling of fish at the pond site and in the market, although consultation with their husbands on household expenditure is common. Income distribution within the household is relatively equitable, so income generated from aquaculture is likely to benefit entire households. Older women (over 40) may be more suitable for involvement in aquaculture activities. Only experience d (e.g. > 3 years) and relatively better off men and women farmers are likely to be able to engage in mini-hatchery enterprises.
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    Gender and Aquaculture in Lao PDR 1998
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      Gender and Aquaculture in Lao PDR: A synthesis of a socio-economic and gender alysis of the UNDP/FAO Aquaculture Development Project LAO/97/007    The gender and socio-economic roles of men and women in different forms of Lao aquaculture (pond, rice-cum-fish, mini-hatchery) have so far not been studied in-depth. This socio-economic and gender alysis of Lao aquaculture was conducted in five Lao provinces within the scope of the UNDP/FAO project LAO/97/007 in mid-1998. There are several traditio l fish farming practices. There is a potential for increasing the scale and efficiency of aquaculture activities in Lao PDR. However, aquaculture needs to be integrated into existing agricultural livelihood systems. There are high levels of interest among women and men farmers towards aquaculture. Easy access to fish for the family is one of the main reasons for both women’s and men’s interest in raising fish in Lao PDR, with income generation as an added bonus only where surplus fish is produce d. However there are high labour and fincial entry costs for pond based aquaculture, which only some farmers may be able to sustain. Both women and men are involved in aquaculture, although each have different roles at different stages of the fish production cycle. In Lao PDR, men select the site for pond construction and as heads of households are regarded as owners of ponds. The production from ponds depends largely on the time and effort allocated by women and children for pond magement and f or feeding of the fish. Men are responsible for harvesting the overall yield, and women are often responsible for harvesting fish for household consumption. Women control the cash income from the selling of fish at the pond site and in the market, although consultation with their husbands on household expenditure is common. While in theory women have access to aquaculture training and extension, in practice their access can often be limited because of gender biases in extension services. Existin g village fish farmer groups are largely composed of men. There is scope for inclusion of more women fish farmers in such groups, or establishing women fish farmer groups. The Agriculture Promotion Bank (APB) is the only source of formal credit for rural farmers. So far, credit programmes have not yet supported aquaculture because it is still considered a risky venture. There are opportunities for gender sensitive aquaculture promotion through other organisations such as the LWU. On the basis of the study findings, this report presents a range of practical recommendations for more gender sensitive aquaculture development in Lao PDR.   
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    Tanzania Mainland country profile: gender inequalities in rural employment in Tanzania Mainland, an overview 2014
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    This country profile, prepared by the Social Protection Division (ESP) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), aims to contribute to a better understanding of the types and the degree of existing employment-related gender inequalities in rural settings of Tanzania Mainland and highlight key areas of attention for policy makers conducive to poverty reduction and food security. It constitutes an important added value to existing sources, most notably because it provid es rural-specific information and cross-examines different dimensions of inequality. The country profile assesses the nature and degree of existing gender disparities in employment and income in rural areas, linking them to factors such as education, age and wealth when possible. Tanzania Mainland remains a primarily rural country with an agriculture-based economy and significant rural-urban and regional socio-economic disparities. It is widely recognized that improving the performance of the ag riculture sector is critical for poverty reduction and food security. At the same time, a body of evidence has demonstrated that the underperformance of the agriculture sector is partially due to the existing gender inequalities in access, use and control of assets, resources, and services, including rural employment. Women, particularly in rural areas, are often disadvantaged in terms of decent work and income generating opportunities owing to limited access and control over resources, includin g education and training, land and decision-making powers. Rural women face greater difficulties in translating their labour into gainful and productive work that could ultimately lead to a reduction of poverty and enhancement of food security. Agriculture is the largest sector of employment in Tanzania Mainland, with the vast majority of rural women and men employed in agriculture, mostly as self-employed on their own farms. The present country profile identified persisting gender inequalities in Tanzania Mainland, particularly in terms of access to productive resources, income generating and employment opportunities, time-use patterns and educational possibilities.

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