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General principles of food hygiene










FAO & WHO. 2023. General principles of food hygiene. Codex Alimentarius Code of Practice, No. CXC 1-1969. Codex Alimentarius Commission. Rome.



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    Booklet
    Conduct a hazard analysis – Step 6, Principle 1 2023
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    Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) consists of seven principles and is typically described in 12 successive steps. This guidance document provides information on how to determine and list all potential hazards associated with each step of the process, how to conduct a hazard analysis to identify the significant hazards, and how to consider any measures to control identified hazards to develop an effective HACCP system (Step 6 / Principle 1). The guidance follows the approach described in the in the Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene (CXC 1-1969). A hazard analysis consists of identifying potential hazards and evaluating these hazards to determine which are significant for the specific food and food business operation. Hazards that must be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels to produce safe food should be identified and appropriately controlled. In some cases, specific hazards can be controlled by applying good hygiene practices and programmes. In other instances, control measures will need to be applied within the production or processing process, e.g. at Critical control points (CCP). There are various sources of information available to help identify hazards in foods and to explain the hazard analysis for a particular food or process, including commodity-hazard-specific risk assessments and generic HACCP plans. This publication is part of the FAO Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Toolbox for Food Safety series. The toolbox is a central repository of practical guidance and resource materials to strengthen food safety capacities, both public and private, in order to develop and implement food safety management programmes in accordance with the Codex standards. Care was taken to consider the challenges faced by small food business operators and primary producers in low- and middle-income countries, and those with an institutional role, such as government officials, academia and capacity building organizations.
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    Booklet
    Determine critical control points – Step 7, Principle 2 2023
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    Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) consists of seven principles and is typically described in 12 successive steps. This guidance document explains Critical control points (Step 7 / Principle 2) and how to identify them to develop an effective HACCP system in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene (CXC 1-1969). A Critical control point (CCP) is a step at which control can be applied. It is essential to preventing or eliminating a food safety hazard or reducing it to an acceptable level. When trying to determine a CCP, it can be useful to use a decision tree. As part of the process of identifying CCPs, all operational process steps should be reviewed since some of them might be fully controlled by applying the prerequisite GHP programmes. Critical control points should be monitored and documented carefully to ensure that hazards can be effectively controlled. This publication is part of the FAO Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Toolbox for Food Safety series. The toolbox is a central repository of practical guidance and resource materials to strengthen food safety capacities, both public and private, in order to develop and implement food safety management programmes in accordance with the Codex standards. Care was taken to consider the challenges faced by small food business operators and primary producers in low- and middle-income countries, and those with an institutional role, such as government officials, academia and capacity building organizations.
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    Booklet
    Establish validated critical limits – Step 8, Principle 3 2023
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    Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) consists of seven principles and is typically described in 12 successive steps. This guidance document provides information on how to set and validate critical limits for each Critical control point (CCP) (Step 8 / Principle 3) to develop an effective HACCP system in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene (CXC 1-1969).  Critical limits establish whether a CCP is in control, and can, therefore, be used to separate acceptable products from unacceptable ones. Critical limits should be measurable or observable and typically use minimum and/or maximum values or critical parameters, such as temperature, time, moisture level, pH, aw, conveyor belt speed, etc. Critical limits should be scientifically validated to ensure they are capable of controlling hazards to an acceptable level. In many cases, CCPs can be validated using available information and existing studies from credible sources. This publication is part of the FAO Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Toolbox for Food Safety series. The toolbox is a central repository of practical guidance and resource materials to strengthen food safety capacities, both public and private, in order to develop and implement food safety management programmes in accordance with the Codex standards. Care was taken to consider the challenges faced by small food business operators and primary producers in low- and middle-income countries, and those with an institutional role, such as government officials, academia and capacity building organizations.

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