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Animal Genetic Resources / Ressources génétiques animale / Recursos genéticos animales

An international journal / Un journal international / Una revista internacional











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    Article
    Genome-Wide Association Scan Suggests Basis for Microtia in Awassi Sheep 2016
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    Microtia, the underdevelopment of the pinna, the structural part of the outer ear, has been observed in many species,including humans, mice, dogs and various livestock. Microtia is relatively prevalent in sheep, observed in multiple breeds including some entire populations, but its genetic basis has not been described. The Awassi sheep, a breed native to Southwest Asia, carries this phenotype and was targeted for molecular characterization via a genome-wide association study . DNA samples wer e collected from sheep flocks in Jordan, within the native range of the Awassi. Samples from eight affected and twelve normal individuals were genotyped with the Illumina OvineSNP50 ® chip. Haplotype-based analyses failed to identify any major runs of homozygosity associated with the trait. In contrast, a single-locus genome-wide association analysis revealed a solitary statistically significant association (P= 0.012, genome wide) with a single-nucleotide polymorphism at base-pair 34,647,4 99 on OAR23. This marker is adjacent to the gene encoding transcription factor GATA-6, which has been shown to play a critical role in many developmental processes, including chondrogenesis. The lack of extended homozygosity in this region suggests a fairly ancient mutation, and the time of occurrence was estimated to be approximately 860 generations ago. This result suggests that many of the sheep breeds showing this phenotype may share the causative mutation, especially within the sub- group of fat-tailed, wool sheep.
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    Characterization of domestic duck production systems in Cambodia
    AHBL - Promoting strategies for prevention and control of HPAI
    2009
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    A survey was conducted among 99 farmers in Kampong Cham, Kampot, Odar Meanchey, Rattanakiri and Siem Reap provinces in Cambodia to determine the different duck production systems and to differentiate the phenotypic characteristics of ducks in different provinces. The majority of farmers interviewed were men aged between 40 and 50 years. The illiteracy rate among these farmers is less than the national average of 26.4. Rice is the main agricultural crop in all five provinces, 71.7 percent of the farmers rear cattle/buffaloes and 53.5 percent keep pigs along with their ducks. The average flock size is highest in Siem Reap province (204 birds/flock) and lowest in Kampot (10.4 birds/flock). Across all the survey provinces, about 25.2 percent of the farmers stated that poultry numbers have decreased over the last five years. 70.7 percent of the farmers purchase birds from outside, from nearby markets, neighbours or commercial farms. They prefer to buy ducklings rather than adults, and they do not have any particular selection criteria. About 93 percent of the farmers provide some kind of housing for their birds, usually constructed mainly from simple materials available on-farm. Although the birds depend on scavenging, 95 percent of the farmers provide extra feed. Very few farmers use the available veterinary facilities, and disease is reported as the main cause of mortality. In general, the labour involved in managing and marketing the birds is almost equally divided between men and women. The results of multivariate analysis indicate that ducks in Odar Meanchey province are clearly separated from those in all other populations. The most similar populations are those of Kampong Cham and Siem Reap. A comparison of the distances among ducks and chickens indicates that there is even greater diversity in ducks than chickens in Cambodia.
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    Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Cambodia
    AHBL - Promoting strategies for prevention and control of HPAI
    2009
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    Reports of the project GCP/INT/010/GER summarize the findings from an integrated approach to prevent and control Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the smallholder environment of Cambodia, Egypt and Uganda by considering the components of animal health (AH), poultry breeds (B) and livelihoods (L). - A survey was conducted on 402 chicken farmers in Kampong Cham, Kampot, Odar Meanchey, Rattanakiri and Siem Reap provinces in Cambodia to determine the different production systems and to differenti ate the phenotypic characteristics of chickens from different provinces. The majority of farmers interviewed were men aged between 41 and 50 years. The illiteracy rate among these farmers was less than the national average of 26.4 percent. Rice is the main agricultural crop in all five provinces. As well as their chickens, 71 percent of the farmers rear cattle/buffaloes and 43 percent keep pigs. The average flock size is highest in Kampot province (40.2 birds/flock) and lowest in Rattanakiri (23 .3 birds/flock). Across all the survey provinces, 35 percent of the farmers stated that chicken numbers have decreased over the last five years. Only one-third of the farmers purchase birds from outside, mainly from neighbours. Although the production systems vary in many aspects, selection criteria are similar in all provinces. Body weight is the most important criterion, followed by number of eggs laid. About 80 percent of the farmers provide their birds with at least night housing, constructe d mainly from simple materials available on-farm. The birds depend on scavenging, but 95 percent of farmers also provide some extra feed. Only a small number of farmers use the available veterinary facilities, and disease is reported as the main cause of mortality.

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