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Highly pathogenic avian influenza spread into Nigeria

Situation update (10 February 2006)









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    Book (series)
    Potential risk of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) spreading through wild water bird migration
    Updated version
    2005
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    There is a potential that Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 might be carried along migration routes of wild water birds to densely populated areas in the south Asian subcontinent and along migratory flyways to Europe. Recent outbreaks of HPAI in Russia and Kazakhstan (August, 2005) attest to this fact. Looking at the major bird migration routes (Fig. 1), the HPAI H5N1 virus could possibly spread from Siberia to the Caspian and Black Sea areas in the foreseeable future. Some w ild water birds are nesting in the newly AI affected areas in Novosibirsk and Altai in Russia and will migrate to the above-mentioned areas for winter or stop-over on their way to Africa and Europe. Bird migration routes run across Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Georgia, Ukraine and some Mediterranean countries, where bird flu outbreaks are a possibility. Also India and Bangladesh, which currently seem to be uninfected, are at risk because both areas harbour large numbers of domestic duck and the count ries are situated along one of the major migratory routes. They have the potential to become new large endemic foci of HPAI infection. Additionally, spring migration of 2006 may result in the spread of HPAI H5N1 virus across European Russia, because birds migrating from Europe and European Russia and Siberia have common wintering areas in Southwest Asia.
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    Book (series)
    Update on the continuous spread and expansion of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza
    Clade 2.3.2.1 in Asia (2010-2012)
    2014
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    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, initially detected in 1996 in China, spread to more than 60 countries or territories on three continents within a ten-year period and has become endemic in poultry in several countries and regions (including Ganges–Brahmaputra Delta, Indonesia, Viet Nam, China and Egypt). The virus infects wild birds and domestic poultry and causes sporadic transmissions to humans raising concerns of a potential pandemic. The recent confirmation of human cases of low pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9) and bird positive findings across multiple provinces in China since April 2013 in live bird markets highlights the threat posed by existing and newly emerging avian influenza viruses irrespective of their virulence. The economic impact of disease caused by avian influenza viruses is related to losses incurred as a result of high mortality in poultry, to costs associated with control measures including poultry movement restrictions, to disruption of tra de and threats to food security of resource poor countries.
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    Book (series)
    Avian influenza spread into Europe
    Situation update (July - October 2005)
    2005
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    The likely progressive spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) into new regions will require proactive intervention by the countries at risk, especially those situated along wild bird migration routes. Increased surveillance, detection capabilities and emergency preparedness will be required. Public awareness, along with education and training of veterinary and veterinary para-professionals, farmers, marketers, and poultry transport contractors and egg collectors, will be required to ensure that the disease is either prevented or detected and controlled, in order to prevent its establishment and maintenance in newly colonized ecosystems.

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