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Understanding water modelling capacity and use in Asia and the Pacific region











Ghimire, U., Piman, T., Pearson, L. 2023. Understanding water modelling capacity and use in the Asia-Pacific Region. Next Generation Water Management Policy Brief, No. 4. Bangkok, FAO. 




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    Project
    Strengthening the Capacity for Monitoring Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture in the Context of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 and 12 - TCP/RAS/3618 2020
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    At the forty-seventh session of the United Nations Statistics Commission (UNSC) in March 2016, an indicator framework for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) was agreed upon by Member States. The framework provides 169 targets and 231 indicators for the 17 SDGs. Because of the broad scope of the framework, it can be challenging for Member Countries to monitor all of the indicators, owing to deficits in available data, resources and capacities. This TCP project was designed to support several countries in the Asia Pacific region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam) that requested technical assistance for the establishment of a monitoring system to improve their capacities to report on their progress towards the achievement of the SDGs. The design of this project included technical support and capacity development for the monitoring of two SDGs in particular: 2 (Zero hunger) and 12 (Responsible production and consumption). Specific indicators were targeted under each of these SDGs. Indicator 2.1.1 focuses on the Prevalence of Undernourishment (PoU), indicator 2.1.2 focuses on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), and indicator 2.4.1 focuses on sustainable agriculture. Under SDG 12, the focus was indicator 12.3.1, which covers the Food Loss Index (FLI). Building the capacities of local actors on data collection and analysis, measuring sustainable agriculture, and developing a sustainable model for monitoring food loss and waste were priorities of the project. Its design and implementation were informed by lessons learned from past projects, particularly a project concerned with food security measurement. Sharing the lessons learned under this project was also built into the project design, as a means of supporting South-South Cooperation.
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    A strategic reassessment of fish farming potential in Africa 1998
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    The present study is an update of an earlier assessment of warm-water fish farming potential in Africa, by Kapetsky (1994). The objective of this study was to assess locations and areal expanses that have potential for warm-water and temperate-water fish farming in continental Africa. The study was based on previous estimates for Africa by the above author, and on estimates of potential for warm-water and temperate-water fish farming in Latin America by Kapetsky and Nath (1997). However, a nu mber of refinements have been made. The most important refinement was that new data allowed a sevenfold increase in resolution over that used in the previous Africa study, and a twofold increase over that of Latin America (i.e. to 3 arc minutes, equivalent to 5 km x 5 km grids at the equator), making the present results more usable in order to assess fish farming potential at the national level. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to evaluate each grid cell on the basis of severa l land-quality factors important for fish-farm development and operation regardless of the fish species used. Protected areas, large inland water bodies and major cities were identified as constraint areas, and were excluded from any fish farming development altogether. Small-scale fish farming potential was assessed on the basis of four factors: water requirement from ponds due to evaporation and seepage, soil and terrain suitability for pond construction based on a variety of soil attributes a nd slopes, availability of livestock wastes and agricultural by-products as feed inputs based on manure and crop potential, and farm-gate sales as a function of population density. For commercial farming, an urban market potential criterion was added based on population size of urban centres and travel time proximity. Both small-scale and commercial models were developed by weighting the above factors using a multi-criteria decision-making procedure. A bioenergetics model was incorporated int o the GIS to predict, for the first time, fish yields across Africa. A gridded water temperature data set was used as input to a bioenergetics model to predict number of crops per year for the following three species: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Similar analytical approaches to those by Kapetsky and Nath (1997) were followed in the yield estimation. However, different specifications were used for small-scale and co mmercial farming scenarios in order to reflect the types of culture practices found in Africa. Moreover, the fish growth simulation model, documented in Kapetsky and Nath (1997), was refined to enable consideration of feed quality and high fish biomass in ponds. The small-scale and commercial models derived from the land-quality evaluation were combined with the yield potential of each grid cell for each of the three fish species to show the coincidence of each land-quality suitability class with a range of yield potentials. Finally, the land quality-fish yield potential combinations were put together to show where the fish farming potential coincided for the three fish species. The results are generally positive. Estimates of the quality of land show that about 23% of continental Africa scored very suitable for both small-scale and commercial fish farming. For the three fish species, 50-76% of Africa's land has the highest yield range potential, and the spatial distribution of th is yield is quite similar among the species and farming systems. However, the spatial distribution of carp culture potential was greater than for Nile tilapia and African catfish. Combining the two farming system models with the favourable yields of the three fish species suggest that over 15% of the continent has land areas with high suitability for pond aquaculture.
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    Report of the twenty-fifth session of the Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission 2007
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    An account of the Commission session held in Beijing, China from 27 to 31 August 2007. Delegates from 18 Commission member countries attended - Australia, Cambodia, China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam. The meeting reviewed the body's work since the previous Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission and the ove rall plant protection situation at national and regional levels. The Commission discussed and adopted two Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures and for the first time formulated a strategy and business plan which include a position statement, mission statement and five regional directions. Other items of note were acceptance of pest risk analysis for South American Leaf Blight (SALB) for rubber as a basis for the development of a standard on measures for protection from the SALB in the r egion and progress made in information exchange among member countries through the publication of "Country Profiles of Plant Protection from APPPC Members". The latter will greatly assist in formulating better strategies and policies for pest and pesticide management, provide early warning of dangerous trends or gaps in the execution of plant protection functions, promote transparency and harmonization of procedures, and improve regional cooperation and development.

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