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Agricultural Development and Economic Empowerment in Cambodia - UTF/CMB/038/CMB










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    Project
    Agricultural Development and Economic Empowerment in Cambodia - UTF/CMB/038/CMB 2019
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    With 80 percent of the population living in rural areas, agriculture remains the main source of employment in Cambodia. However, poor and very poor rural households, which include the large majority of female-headed households, generally have little land and livestock, and food insecurity remains a reality. Improving the production techniques of these households in rice and other crops, and boosting commercial linkages between smallholder farmers and buyers both require enhanced agricultural and business support services, an initial capital base, and sustainable access to financial services. Illiteracy, poor financial literacy, the lack of assets and high transaction costs impede the access of the rural poor, particularly women, to such services. A package of interventions was therefore designed to address this. The overall objective of PADEE was to improve the livelihoods, income-generating capacities and food security of 68 200 poor rural households in 246 communes in 33 districts in the five selected provinces of Kampot, Kandal, Prey Veng, SvayRiengand Takeo. The component supported by FAO on improved access to rural finance had a target of 49 200 beneficiaries/households, at least 50 percent of whom would be women.
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    Gender differences in assets 2011
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    Agriculture can be an important engine of growth and poverty reduction. But the sector is underperforming in many countries in part because women, who are often a crucial resource in agriculture and the rural economy, face constraints that reduce their productivity. In this paper we document the gender gap in access to and ownership of most inputs, asset and services important for agricultural activities. We focus in particular on education, land, livestock, financial services, modern inputs, in formation and extension and labour. Across assets and inputs women are disadvantaged. The gap in education has narrowed over the last decades but substantial gaps remain in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. For land, the key farm household asset, there are significant gender differences in access to land across regions. Moreover female-headed households also typically operate smaller land holdings than male-headed households, across regions. There are also significant and systematic gender diff erences with regard to livestock, financial services, modern inputs, information and extension and labour. Gender differences in assets are generally interlinked, for example when female farmers have lower levels of technology this is due to their having less access to land, less access to labour and less access to extension services, not their sex. This also helps explain why women farmers do not necessarily benefit from access to extension services, as some studies have found. The implication of this is that selective interventions are unlikely to be effective.
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    Improve the Competitiveness and Increase Post-Harvest Value Chain of Smallholder Farmers - TCP/URT/3604 2020
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    The United Republic of Tanzania is a low-income rural economy, with most citizens participating in agriculture for household income generation. Agriculture represents about 23 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and 30 percent of export earnings, and employs 66.9 percent of the working population. In 2000/01 agriculture accounted for 31 percent of GDP but has since fallen to 23 percent despite an annual GDP growth rate of 5-6 percent. The poor performance of the sector is caused by several factors, including poor extension services, financial illiteracy and inadequate access to financial services by smallholder farmers. In collaboration with MoA, the project aimed to address these challenges by improving the competitiveness and enhancing the post-harvest management capacity of VC (smallholder farmers and processors), building the management capacity of producers’ organizations, creating sustainable linkages with other agricultural VC actors, and improving post-harvest practices to enhance farmers’ competitiveness. The project also built linkages between farmer organizations (FOs) and other service providers, encouraging the development of a long-term market strategy and contributing to the national objective to increase agricultural productivity and reduce rural poverty. The project was further expected to increase and stabilize the incomes of smallholder farmers producing paddy in Iringa district, building capacity in post-harvest handling and strengthening the commercial relationships between FOs and other rice VC actors. Market linkages between producer and other value chain actors such as traders and processors were established by the project, with 15 new linkages being forged.

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