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The Kyrgyz Republic: Farm mechanization and agricultural productivity

FAO Investment Centre: Country highlights, Paper commissioned under the FAO/WB Cooperative Programme









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    The Kyrgyz Republic: Farm mechanization and agricultural productivity 2009
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    This policy note results from joint efforts of the World Bank and FAO and is published under the TCI Country Highlights Series. The note reviews the status of farm machinery in the Kyrgyz Republic. The paper finds that a significant deficit in agricultural machinery is hindering sector productivity and presents three sets of short- to medium-term policy options to: i) promote the demand for farm machinery, by developing credit lines for agricultural productive assets, leasing, facilitating acces s to secondhand equipment, and testing/demonstrating the efficiency of farm machinery for small-scale farming; ii) increase the supply of farm machinery, by facilitating the development of mechanical services contracting and improving access to farm machinery import markets, including for second-hand equipment; iii) remove obstacles to private investment, by avoiding direct public sector distributions of farm machinery or inputs in-kind, the setting of production targets for specific crops, and ensuring that the private sector is free to fulfill its role.
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    Characterization of the aquafeed sub-sector in the Kyrgyz Republic: an aquafeed value chain analysis and preparation of a business plan for establishing a feed mill 2018
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    Among many other factors, feed is a limiting factor, which accounts for a major share of the total operational cost of the aquaculture sector in Kyrgyz Republic. This study aims to analyze the value chain of aquafeed sub-sector including their possible constraints and develop a business plan for establishing small-scale aquafeed mill in the Kyrgyz Republic. This is the first post-USSR country case study which assesses the current status of the aquafeed sub-sector, aquafeed value chain, on-farm feeding and feed management practices, performance of different actors in terms of value addition and profitability, and feed regulations, institutions and policies and presents a business plan for small-scale aquafeed in Kyrgyz Republic. The study identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in this sub-sector, and suggests a number of development strategies which would improve the performance of feed industry and farmers’ access to better feeds and ultimately support the development of aquaculture sector in Kyrgyz Republic. Quantitative data analysis result shows that the Kyrgyz aquafeed sub-sector is still in its infancy and its value chain is very simple; including only few actors comprising feed input suppliers, aquafeed producers, aquafeed traders and fish farmers, and all of them are doing their business profitably. Feed is a crucial input in fish farming which accounts for about 65 – 75 percent of the operational cost of fish production, which means that a substantial part of fish farmers’ income is transferred to feed manufacturers. Good quality feed is a prerequisite for increasing aquaculture productivity in Kyrgyz Republic where particularly fish farmers are using very little volume of commercial feed as supplementary feed. With potential of aquaculture intensification and lack of quality feed, establishment of a commercial feed mill in the country for both carps and trout may have a strong justification. The primary competitors of a new feed mill would be the existing locally manufactured feeds and the commercial feed that are being imported. Imported feeds are mainly for trout and often expensive and not available in the local market throughout the country. Public-private partnership operated feed mill in Kyrgyz Republic with the capacity of 500 kg/hour is expected to be profitable, with an anticipated profit of USD13 617 in year one, rising to USD 97 980 in year five. The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of such a mill is estimated to be 19.1 percent, which is expected to be reasonably good. Therefore, the study recommends establishing a public-private partnership aquafeed mill in Kyrgyz Republic that would be feasible, viable and profitable. The major factors impacting on the performance of the value-chain relate to the feed ingredients, feed production, fish farmers, marketing and other service providers (e.g., financial, academic and research institutions, extension services). Aquafeed value chain shows reasonable promise although there are constrains and a lack of institutional, regulatory and policy environment to oversee this sectoral development. Aquafeed subsector can play an important role in aquaculture sector development as it has strong backward and forward linkages with aquaculture sector, which can eventually play an important role in the overall development of Kyrgyz economy. The study recommends various measures to develop the sub-sector including the establishment of additional feed mills and use of locally available raw feed materials, developing and strengthening quality control and inspection facilities, providing training and better organizational management of fish farms and improving the institutional, legal and policy environment.
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    Fish marketing and consumption survey in the Kyrgyz Republic 2013
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    A country-wide survey was carried out to assess the status, trends and issues related to fish production, marketing and consumption in the Kyrgyz Republic. The methodology adopted was a combination of structured questionnaires and one-to-one interviews that collected data from 1167 respondents, which included fish farmers, vendors/sellers of fish and fish products, consumers of fish and fish products and key informants. The emerged trends and issues from the survey results were presented and in terpreted under fish production, trade and consumption. Since independence, the fish production in the Kyrgyz Republic is not realized to its potential due to knowledge gaps in innovative technology and good management practices in aquaculture and fisheries. Inconsistent supply of quality fish seed, lack of access to fish feeds and credit, and total absence of state support services were the main constraints. Farmers see opportunities to develop recreational fisheries in their aquaculture ponds . The main constraints to a developed fish marketing are related to infrastructure and institutional management. The majority of markets are rather poorly endowed with basic infrastructure and services for food handling. Knowledge deficit on modern sanitation techniques and quality control, management of hygiene of fish handlers, and distantly located markets from fishers are also constraints in fish marketing. A vigorous attempt to improve the system should begin by a very careful and detailed evaluation of the problems in the market and marketing system. The quality of unprocessed fish during transit from harvest to the consumer cannot be assured as the present system of inspection and quality control is restricted mainly to the processed fish products. The price of fish is influenced by the price at which the middlemen/wholesalers buy their fish and the amount of profit they intend to gain, and it is fixed through supply and demand interaction. The marketing inefficiency too contri butes to unregulated price margins. In proportion to other commodities, fish prices have recently increased and this discourages increasing per capita fish consumption. The share of fish in the food basket offered by catering entities averages 19 percent, while the share of fish and fish products in the total food basket of a household amounts to less than 9.7 percent. The indications are that to increase this share, fish prices must go down. Fish selling business is dominated by females, mainl y in the post-harvest sector due to their involvement in household-based small-scale fish processing. Exporters perceived that low-interest credit and improved legislation to streamline export procedures, elimination of corruption and access to information, particularly on pricing policies, quality standards, and forecasted fish consumption and demand are key to improve the export industry. The report includes a set of recommendations to address the issues emerged from the survey related to fish production, marketing and consumption.

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