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Non-tariff measures in agriculture trade











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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Non-Tariff Measures in agriculture and related World Trade Organization agreements 2023
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    This course discusses the significance of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) for international trade and it describes WTO agreements on such measures. This course is designed primarily for representatives from governments, for example and other entities directly involved in trade negotiations and in the formulation and implementation of agricultural policies and programmes.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Assessing the impact of trade and other policies on global value chain (GVC) participation, positioning and vertical specialization in agriculture and food
    Background paper for The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets (SOCO) 2020
    2020
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    This technical paper includes:  A literature review of the impact of trade policies and domestic support measures (for example, subsidies) on global value chain (GVC) participation including the effects of tariffs and non-tariff measures, Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and Rules of Origin, as well as recent market developments and trade tensions on GVC linkages.  The computation of indicators and decomposition for 18 agri-food sectors and 29 countries and aggregate regions, derived from the most recent (2014) release of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database.  The description of the modeling and simulation exercises using a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model to analyse the effects of tariffs on GVC participation/positioning on countries and regions, and conduct simulation scenarios to quantitatively assess the effects of trade and other policy changes on GVCs participation (scenarios will include a reduction on tariff levels and trade liberalization).
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    Book (stand-alone)
    The impact of changes in the fundamental drivers of trade – Productivity, trade costs, and trade policies
    Background paper for The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets (SOCO) 2022
    2022
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    Countries’ varying natural resource endowments are vital in explaining international trade. Traditional trade theory suggests that differences in technology and factor endowments lead countries to specialize and export certain goods or services in which they have a comparative advantage. The computable general equilibrium (CGE) model simulations used in this paper aim to explain agricultural trade patterns and show how agricultural trade would change in response to productivity, infrastructure and institutions improvements and trade cost changes from regional and global trade liberalization. A set of nine scenarios is used to explore the effects of productivity, transport costs, non-tariff barriers (NTB), and border measures changes on agricultural and food trade and related welfare implications. Policies driving agricultural productivity growth such as investments in research and development, economic reforms that strengthen incentives for farmers, rural education and extension, and improved infrastructure are shown to reduce the yield gap and improve productivity. Lower trade costs help comparative advantage play out, resulting in gains from trade. Measures taken to increase trade integration in Africa and Asia will be important for economic growth and development in these regions.

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