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Indigenous Knowledge of Edible Tree Products - The Mungomu Tree in Central Mozambique








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    Article
    Ethnobotanical survey of less-known indigenous edible tree Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) in Benin, West Africa
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    African ebony (Diospyros mespiliformis) is a priority indigenous fruit tree that has several uses but its use pattern and conservation are little documented across various ethnic groups in Benin. These surveys carried out in 2018 aimed at provide a critical appraisal of the existing knowledge on the ethno-botanical value of these resources among 317 registered informants. Data on socio demographic characteristics and uses of these plant resources was collected based on oral interview using Kobo Collect tool and a well-structured questionnaire from 11 ethnic groups. Quantitative analysis techniques including Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), Hierarchical Clustering (HCPC) and beta-regression (beta-reg)) were performed to evaluaterelative usefulness of different tree organs and the extent to which quantitative indexes give similar results. Results revealed three clusters with diverse uses of D. mespiliformis. The main uses categories of African ebony were food-fodder, medicinal, construction and magico-religious. The results showed also significant difference in use between ethnic groups, generations and socio-professional categories (P < 0.05). However, gender, religion and educational background of informants were not a determinant of local knowledge (P > 0.05). In addition, diseases treated with D. mespiliformis werefever, dressing wound, malaria and infertility. Our findings suggest that local availability of D. mespiliformis should prioritize the fruit and the wood which are the most valued parts of the plant. In order to fully explore the plant’s potential, this resource needs development of integrated cultivation approach, safety evaluation and detailed ethno-pharmacological studies because it is not excluded that interesting medicinal properties setting in light by research permit to finalize new drug. Keywords: Quantitative ethno-botany, Medicinal plant, edible tree, Diospyros mespiliformis, Benin ID: 3477093
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    Impact of Leptoglossus occidentalis on Pinus pinea cone to pine nut yield in Chile
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Stone pine nuts are highly appreciated and increasingly in demand. However, pine nut yield expressed as percentage of nut weight over cone weight, has decreased (from 4% to 2% or even less) in the European producer countries, due to the attack of the insect Leptoglossus occidentalis, which produces an increase in the presence of empty (up to 50%) and damaged seeds. The species shows a good adaptation in Chile, with over 2,000 hectares of new plantations. L. occidentalis here was first detected in 2017, with increasing captures in the last years. The objective of this study was to assess fruit traits and pine nut yield before and after the arrival of the insect, and to quantify its damages (types I (endosperm/embryo damage), II (endosperm elimination) and III (empty seeds)). Seven plantations were monitored in 2018 and 2019 and compared to data from previous years (2010/15). Cone size, seed number per cone, seed and pine nut size (length and diameter) and weight were measured at each plantation and year and pine nut yield was determined. Results showed average pine nut yield of 4% without decreases along time. In a hotspot site for the insect, a significant decrease in cone weight, seed weight and pine nuts per cone was quantified. A significant increase in damages type I and II was found in all sites after 2017. Consequently, the need of monitoring the advance of the insect in the country and its effects on stone pine cropping is relevant. Biological or chemical control will be required for adequate orchard management. Keywords: kernel yield, cone health, stone pine, insect attack ID: 3483547
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    Promoting Terminalia brownii as a commercial indigenous tree species in drylands, East Africa
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Kenya’s forest cover is estimated at 7.4% of the land mass cover. Forests are important in ensuring biodiversity conservation and providing ecosystem goods and services, improving community livelihoods and national GDP. There is need to enhance afforestation and reforestation programmes to achieve the envisioned 10% tree cover target. However, this effort is constrained by climate change issues arising from unsustainable exploitation of wood for charcoal and firewood leading to the depletion of important tree species such as T. brownii. The domestication of T. brownii under agroforestry systems and other tree planting programmes are constrained by lack of adequate supply of superior and high quality seeds and seedlings, poor silvi-cultural management techniques, low rates of integration into smallholder agroforestry programs, limited knowledge on crop-tree interactions and lack of allometric models to estimate biomass yield and carbon stock. A multidisciplinary research project funded by the National Research Fund (NRF) is ongoing and is geared towards promoting the propagation and regeneration of T. brownii under agroforestry systems in the drylands of Kenya to mitigate climate change. A number of preliminary findings have been reported, such are; (1) Terminalia brownii fruits have mechanical dormancy imposed by the hard samara fruit and that extracted T. brownii seeds record a high percentage of above 80% under warm conditions; (2) germination of T. brownii fruits and seeds are significantly affected by fungal pathogens and insect pests; (3) five variables significantly influence the decision to domesticate T. brownii these are; education level of household head, importance of farm to the household income, access to credit, dependency ratio and intercropping; (4) studies on the spatial distribution and occurrence and development of allometric equation for estimating above and below-ground biomass of T. brownii in the drylands of Kenya are ongoing. Further assessment on growth performance have shown that T. brownii is generally fast growing; can attain an increase in height of (~1.0 m) and DGL (3.0 cm) annually, with significance difference in growth within and between provenances and that the it can withstand many other growth challenges despite the harsh weather conditions. These findings suggest that T. brownii is a promising tree species in agroforestry systems and afforestation in drylands and that there exist genetic variability among the available provenances thus the need to involve more stakeholders in seedling production and to embark on...... Key words: T. brownii, Commercial tree, growth performance, drylands of Kenya ID: 3623166

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