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Distributional impacts of home-grown school feeding and conservation agriculture in Zambia​










Kangasniemi, M. 2021. Distributional impacts of home-grown school feeding and conservation agriculture in ZambiaRome, FAO. 




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    The aim of this study is to explore the distributional impacts on poverty and income of two programmes in Zambia, the Home Grown School Feeding (HGSF) programme and the Conservation Agriculture Scale-Up (CASU) project, complementing the impact evaluation findings by Prifti & Grinspun (2019). These programmes target different parts of the population but are partly overlapping; they aim to influence poverty and food security through different channels. In the World Food Programme (WFP)’s HGSF modality, school feeding or provision of free meals for schoolchildren is complemented with procurement of food used for the meals from local smallholders. The purchase scheme aims to provide market access for smallholders, hence improving income stability and incentives to invest, ultimately increasing their productivity and reducing poverty. The objectives of school meals alone are improvement in schoolchildren’s nutrition as well as improvement in school attendance and hence human capital accumulation. Conservation agriculture (CA) consists of production methods that reduce farmers’ vulnerability to climate risks and improve productivity. The CASU programme promoted the use of such methods among smallholders through training and demonstration and provision of inputs, aiming for adoption of more sustainable farming which increases farm productivity in the long run.
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    This in-depth qualitative study in Zambia is integral to a mixed method impact evaluation of the Home Grown School Feeding (HGSF) and the Conservation Agriculture Scale Up (CASU) programmes. Zambia’s HGSF (launched in 2011, and institutionalized in 2012, by the Government of Zambia in collaboration with the World Food Programme, WFP) provides nutritious cooked meals to almost one million schoolchildren and WFP’s Purchase for Progress (P4P) programme procures the commodities that make up the school meals provided by HGSF. P4P aims to improve livelihoods and address food insecurity by expanding local market opportunities for smallholder farmers in rural areas. The CASU programme (implemented between 2013 and late 2017 by FAO) aimed to provide solutions to declining crop production among small- and medium-scale farmers, strengthen partnership and networking between the Zambian government and cooperating partners, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector, and reduce hunger, improve food security and income by increasing crop production, diversification and productivity. The aim of the qualitative study is to contextualise the findings of a quantitative impact evaluation conducted between October 2017 and January 2018, and deepen understanding of how and why specific findings and impacts transpired.
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    Learning Route Final Report: Successful practices, tools and mechanisms to design, implement and monitor Home-Grown School Feeding (HGSF) programmes in Africa 2021
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    The first live broadcast Learning Route “Successful practices, tools and mechanisms to design, implement and monitor Home-Grown School Feeding (HGSF) programmes in Africa” jointly promoted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Procasur took place from the 7th to the 12th of December 2020 in Kenya. Twenty-two government officials and decision-makers attended this Learning Route; amongst them: seven (07) Kenyan government officials travelled from Nairobi to Busia and Siaya Counties to visit and share knowledge with local HGSF initiatives, such as: the BFN Project developed in Busia and the Nyamninia Primary school in Siaya County. The remaining fifteen participants from selected African countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, Lesotho, Rwanda and Uganda) experienced the same learning journey on a virtual modality through live broadcast connections and direct interactions with key actors in the field. Kenya thanks to its well-established HGSF model was an inspiring host, showcasing the differentiated approaches and strategies developed at national level to facilitate small farmers’ inclusion in the school meals. The “direct cash transfers to school” as a food procurement mechanism, the multisectoral and multi-actors engagement, the nutritional and biodiverse provision of school meals are some of the innovations analyzed during the Learning Route. This final report presents main lessons extracted during the case analysis workshops as well as innovative solutions that participating African Governments intend to adopt and scale-up in their respective countries as a follow-up of their participation to the learning route.

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