Thumbnail Image

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foods from the first regional total diet study in Sub-Saharan Africa: contamination profile and occurrence data









Ingenbleek, L., Veyrand, B., Adegboye, A., Hossou, S. E., Koné, A. Z., Oyedele, A. D., ... & Leblanc, J. C. (2019). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foods from the first regional total diet study in Sub-Saharan Africa: contamination profile and occurrence data. Food control, 103, 133-144.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.04.006



Also available in:
No results found.

Related items

Showing items related by metadata.

  • Thumbnail Image
    Article
    Regional Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria Reveals the Presence of 164 Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Foods 2019
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    In the framework of the first multi-centre Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study (SSA-TDS), 2328 commonly consumed foods were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 194 composite samples of cereals, tubers, legumes, vegetables, nuts and seeds, dairy, oils, beverages and miscellaneous. Those core foods were tested for mycotoxins and other fungal, bacterial and plant secondary metabolites by liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The highest aflatoxin concentrations were quantified in peanuts, peanut oil and maize. The mean concentration of the sum of aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 (AFtot) in peanut samples (56.4 µg/kg) exceeded EU (4 µg/kg) and Codex (15 µg/kg) standards. The AFtot concentration (max: 246.0 µg/kg) was associated with seasonal and geographic patterns and comprised, on average, 80% AFB1, the most potent aflatoxin. Although ochratoxin A concentrations rarely exceeded existing Codex standards, it was detected in unregulated foods. One palm oil composite sample contained 98 different metabolites, including 35.4 µg/kg of ochratoxin A. In total, 164 different metabolites were detected, with unspecific metabolites like asperglaucide, cyclo(L-pro-L-val), cyclo (L-pro-L-tyr), flavoglaucin, emodin and tryptophol occurring in more than 50% of composite samples. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), sterigmatocystin (STC), ochratoxin A (OTA), citrinin (CIT) and many other secondary fungal metabolites are frequent co-contaminants in staple foods, such as maize and sorghum. Populations from North Cameroon and from Benin may, therefore, suffer chronic and simultaneous exposure to AFB1, FB1, STC, OTA and CIT, which are prevalent in their diet.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Article
    Sub-Saharan Africa total diet study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria: Pesticides occurrence in foods 2019
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    In the framework of the first regional Total Diet Study in Sub-Saharan Africa, 3696 foodstuffs, commonly consumed in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 308 composite samples. Those core foods were tested for up to 470 pesticides residues by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. 39 pesticides were detected with 294 total occurrences, including 47.3% organophosphate pesticides and 35.7% pyrethroids. More specifically, 6 substances represented 75.5% of all 3 organophosphates and 3 pyrethroids: chlorpyrifos (22.4%) cypermethrin (18.0%) dichlorvos (13.6%), lambdacyhalothrin (8.2%), permethrin (7.5%) and profenofos (5.8%). One pesticide or more was detected in 45.8% of samples. Strikingly, several pesticides were quantified in 2 composite samples of smoked fish from Mali: chlorpyrifos (5236–18 084μg/kg), profenofos (30–182μg/kg), cypermethrin (22–250μg/kg), cyfluthrin (16–117μg/kg), lambdacyhalothrin(9–17μg/kg) and permethrin (3–6μg/kg).
  • Thumbnail Image
    Article
    Human dietary exposure to chemicals in sub-Saharan Africa: safety assessment through a total diet study 2020
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    Background Human dietary exposure to chemicals can result in a wide range of adverse health effects. Some substances might cause non-communicable diseases, including cancer and coronary heart diseases, and could be nephrotoxic. Food is the main human exposure route for many chemicals. We aimed to assess human dietary exposure to a wide range of food chemicals. Methods We did a total diet study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali, and Nigeria. We assessed 4020 representative samples of foods, prepared as consumed, which covered more than 90% of the diet of 7291 households from eight study centres. By combining representative dietary surveys of countries with findings for concentrations of 872 chemicals in foods, we characterised human dietary exposure. Findings Exposure to lead could result in increases in adult blood pressure up to 2·0 mm Hg, whereas children might lose 8·8–13·3 IQ points (95th percentile in Kano, Nigeria). Morbidity factors caused by coexposure to aflatoxin B1 and hepatitis B virus, and sterigmatocystin and fumonisins, suggest several thousands of additional liver cancer cases per year, and a substantial contribution to the burden of chronic malnutrition in childhood. Exposure to 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from consumption of smoked fish and edible oils exceeded levels associated with possible carcinogenicity and genotoxicity health concerns in all study centres. Exposure to aluminium, ochratoxin A, and citrinin indicated a public health concern about nephropathies. From 470 pesticides tested across the four countries, only high concentrations of chlorpyrifos in smoked fish (unauthorised practice identified in Mali) could pose a human health risk. Interpretation Risks characterised by this total diet study underscore specific priorities in terms of food safety management in sub-Saharan Africa. Similar investigations specifically targeting children are crucially needed.

Users also downloaded

Showing related downloaded files

No results found.