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Adopting Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices in African Small Island Developing States (SIDS) - GCP/RAF/506/MUL









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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Guinea-Bissau 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. The agricultural sector is the main stay of the economy of Guinea-Bissau. In the absence of other resources, the sector despite being underdeveloped plays a leading role in supporting food security and job creation. Presently it contributes about 46% of national gross domestic product (GDP) with 84% of the population actively employed in primary production agriculture largely dominated by women. The majority of these farmer are small scale farmers farming on less than two hectare (2 ha). More than half (58%) of the total land in Guinea-Bissau is used for agriculture with area under forest heavily degraded by rapid exploitation. However, there are huge potentials for agricultural and forestry land including arable land estimated at about 1.5 million hectares. Farmers engage in the production of diverse crops and livestock such as cashew, rice (country’s staple food), sorghum, maize, etc largely cultivated by subsistence farmers. Women usually take up horticulture in the urban areas. Livestock production concentrated mainly in the north and east of the country is one of the main economic activities supporting food security and thousands of livelihoods. The country is divided into three agroecological zones based on ecological, climatic and demographic characteristics. Agriculture is mainly rainfed with very limited irrigated farming practised. About 82% of water withdrawn is used for agricultural purposes impelling a necessity for huge investments in irrigation to support agriculture production. The projected population growth and food demand is expected to have serious implications on food security with a potential to affect the agricultural sector. Despite the agro-forestry-pastoral potential and fisheries resources of Guinea-Bissau, many studies have shown that, the current food situation in the country is very precarious with poverty identified as the underlining cause. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the agricultural sector has been identified as very high with the country indicating reforestation as the major action for mitigating GHG emissions in its nationally determined contribution (NDC). Some challenges for the agricultural sector identified include (i) growth in population and food demand, (ii) land use change and natural resource depletion, (iii) limited marketing opportunities of agricultural commodities, and (iv) climate change and variability. Guinea-Bissau has a typical hot, humid monsoon-like tropical climate with two well-defined seasons. Agriculture is exposed to the effects of climate change with the country vulnerable to droughts, floods and sea level rise. The projected changes in temperature and rainfall are expected to have substantial impact on water resources which are already limited in their capacity to provide sufficient water for the agriculture sector. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include (i) use of organic manure, (ii) use of weather information, (iii) water supply through drip irrigation, (iv) anti-erosion arrangement, (v) forage/fodder production, (vi) crop rotation, and (vii) rainwater harvesting through the Zai technique. There are a number of institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises in Guinea-Bissau. These include government, private sector, the national institute for agrarian research and general directorate of rural engineering with each most of the institutions profiles having CSA-related activities that deliver on all three pillars of CSA. The Ministry of environment which serves as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and Nationally Designated Authority to the Green Climate Fund (GCF), Adaptation fund, Climate Investment Fund and Global Environment Facility is responsible for the country’s climate change plans and policies. The food and agriculture organisation of the United Nations, the United Nations development programme and the international union for conservation of nature play instrumental roles in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and environmental sustainability. Most of the climate change and CSA-related funding have come from international sources with the UNDP being of great support through its signature programmes.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Cabo Verde 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. Cabo Verde is an archipelago developing country in West Africa of volcanic origin having an ecological and landscape diversity associated to the geomorphological characteristics of the islands and to the influences of the actions of climate elements and anthropic pressure on the existing resources. Agricultural land in the country is about 79000ha representing 19.6% of the total land area. Agriculture is predominantly based on subsistence family production. The production systems present can be categorised into rainfed and irrigated systems. Major crops produced include maize, pulses, vegetables, coconut, sugar cane, coffee and fruits. In terms of agricultural inputs, Cabo Verde has an irrigation potential of 3,109ha although a small proportion (5.9%) of the agricultural areas is equipped for irrigation. However, drip irrigation has expanded fast, with investments made in water mobilisation and gravity irrigation schemes. Cereals continue to constitute the major parts of Cabo Verdean diet although diets are now more diversified with more proteins and micronutrients-rich foods. As a small island development state (SIDS), Cabo Verde has one of the lowest GHG emissions per capita. Challenges to agriculture include (i) growth in population and food demand, (ii) limited marketing opportunities of agricultural commodities, (iii) climate change and variability, and (iv) food waste. Climate models ran during 2008-2012 have shown that the country’s natural vulnerabilities, along with their social and economic implications, are very likely to be exacerbated by climate-related disruptions in the next decades. In addition, the country is affected by acute water scarcity (both surface and underground) with erratic mean annual precipitation level decreasing since 1970. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges, as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include (i) integrated pest and disease management (IPM)), (ii) drip irrigation, (iii) anti-erosion practises, (iv) soil and water conservation (SWC) techniques, (v) shelterbelts, and (vi) improved seeds/breeds. Several institutions aim to foster the development and adoption of technologies that enhance agriculture productivity and advance CSA practises in Cabo Verde. The ministry of environment, agriculture and fisheries is the main government institutions responsible for the country’s climate change plans and policies. The food and agriculture organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations development programme (UNDP) play instrumental roles in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and environmental sustainability. There is no specific funding allocated to CSA per se in the country. However, various projects funded within the purview of agriculture, environmental sustainability and climate change have contributed to delivering CSA goals. Sources of funding include FAO, World Bank, GEF with support of UNDP, etc. The country has also benefitted from other grants to support it in the development of various strategies, action plans, policies and frameworks. Several policies, strategies, plans and programmes are being implemented to fight climate change and promote activities underpinning CSA.
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    Gender, agrifood value chains and climate-resilient agriculture in Small Island Developing States
    Evidence from: Barbados and Saint Lucia in the Caribbean, Palau and Samoa in the Pacific, Cabo Verde,the Comoros and Sao Tome and Principe in the Atlantic, Indian Ocean and South China Sea (AIS) region
    2022
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    In the current context of climate change, focusing on gender equality in the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) can drive improvements in resilience, food security and nutrition. This document seeks to enrich the knowledge and evidence base on gender, food systems and resilience in the SIDS of the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic, Indian Ocean and South China Sea (AIS) region, providing evidence from Barbados, Cabo Verde, Comoros (the), Palau, Saint Lucia, Samoa and Sao Tome and Principe. It focuses specifically on gender-related roles, gender gaps and traditional knowledge in agriculture and natural resource management to better support women’s participation in value chains and the benefits they receive from value chain development. It calls for radical transformations to build resilient livelihoods, overcome gender inequalities and help rural women and men reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters. Furthermore, the transformations called for, which focus on gender equity, will increase the resilience of rural livelihoods to unforeseen events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in view of the critical role women play in ensuring food security and nutrition.

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