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First Report of Lumpy Skin Disease in Myanmar and Molecular Analysis of the Field Virus Isolates









Maw, M.T., Khin, M.M., Hadrill, D., Meki, I.K., Settypalli, T.B.K., Kyin, M.M., Myint, W.W., Thein, W.Z., Aye, O., Palamara, E., et al. First Report of Lumpy Skin Disease in Myanmar and Molecular Analysis of the Field Virus Isolates. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 897. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10050897




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    Strengthening the Regional Preparedness against Lumpy Skin Disease in Central Asia - TCP/SEC/3801 2024
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    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a vector-borne transboundary animal disease of bovines that causes severe economic losses to the cattle sector as a result of mortality, the decrease in milk production, severe damage to hides and trade restrictions. Originally restricted to Africa, around a decade ago LSD began to spread throughout the Middle East and into Türkiye, the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. More recently, the disease has emerged in East and South Asia, affecting some of the largest bovine producers in the world, such as China, India or Bangladesh. The risk of an imminent incursion into neighbouring and as yet unaffected countries is very high, particularly for those sharing borders and (both formal and informal) trade routes. This is the case for Central Asia, where countries such as Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan – which share borders with Kazakhstan – and Tajikistan have begun to plan vaccinations to prevent LSD incursions. In Central Asia, cattle are the most important livestock species and are key to rural areas. The spread of LSD would have a dramatic effect upon rural livelihoods, which remain highly dependent on cattle. The combined cattle population across the four countries is more than 15 million heads. Milk production, either for subsistence or income, is of particular concern.
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    Book (series)
    Introduction and spread of lumpy skin disease in South, East and Southeast Asia
    Qualitative risk assessment and management
    2020
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    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a vector-borne disease of cattle and Asian water buffalo that is included on the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) list of notifiable diseases. In July 2019 LSD was introduced to Bangladesh, China and India and then spread to Nepal and Bhutan and in 2020 to various provinces of China and India. A qualitative risk assessment was conducted to assess the likelihood of introduction and/or spread of LSD in 23 countries in South, East and Southeast Asia based on information available up to 31 October 2020. The economic impact of LSD for South, East and Southeast countries was estimated to be up to USD 1.45 billion in direct losses of livestock and production. These losses may be higher, due to the severe trade implications for infected countries. This document provides an overview of LSD control approaches, including prevention. The cost-effectiveness estimation demonstrates a strong economic justification for vaccination and advocates for a regional approach to harmonize control measures.
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    Book (series)
    Lumpy skin disease – A manual for veterinarians 2017
    The Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral disease of cattle that has dramatic effects on rural livelihoods, which strongly dependent on cattle. The disease slashes milk production and may lead sterility in bulls and fertility problems in females. It damages hides, and causes death due to secondary bacterial infections. Although traditionally limited to sub-Saharan Africa, LSD has slowly been invading new territories such as the Middle East and Turkey, and since 2015, most of the Balkan countries, the Caucasus and the Russian Federation, where the disease continues to spread and the risk of an imminent incursion into other unaffected countries, is very high. Veterinarians, cattle farmers, and others along the value chain are facing the disease for first time and are unfamiliar with LSD’s clinical presentation, its transmission routes and the available prevention and control options. This manual aims to fill these gaps by providing veterinary professionals and paraprofessionals with the information they need to promptly diagnose and react to an outbreak of LSD. Cattle farmers will also benefit from reading it.

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