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Fertilizer use by crop in Argentina








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    Fertilizer use by crop in the Islamic Republic of Iran 2005
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    Low rainfall and high temperatures in Iran necessitate irrigation and over half the cultivated land is irrigated. Water availability and salinity are major constraints. Iran has long been a major importer of wheat but in 2003 and 2004 domestic wheat production almost satisfied the national demand. Several governmental measures supported production of the crop and favourable rainfall after a drought was also a major factor. Yields of both irrigated and rainfed wheat are low by world standards. Th e intensification of production, in particular through a greater efficiency of fertilization and irrigation, is required in order to achieve a permanent reduction in the country’s dependence on wheat imports, even under less favourable climatic conditions.
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    Fertilizer use by crop in Cuba 2003
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    In this study the agro-ecological structure and the areas, yields and fertilization of the individual crops in Cuba are examined. All Cuba’s fertilizer requirements are imported and the quantities available are limited. The use of fertilizers fell by 80 percent during the 1990s and the present level is insufficient to maintain yields and soil fertility. In order to alleviate the situation the Government gives priority to certain key crops such as sugar cane because of its economic importance and potatoes as a key food crop. The use of plant nutrients from organic sources is encouraged. The use of biofertilizers has been tried but only nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium has maintained its position.
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    Fertilizer use by crop in Egypt 2005
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    Agricultural land accounts for only 3.5 percent of the land area of Egypt. Two thirds of the agricultural land is alluvial soil, fertilized for thousands of years by the Nile floods, and one third is land recovered since the 1950s. Rainfall is minimal and almost all the agricultural land is irrigated. Soil salinity and water logging are important problems in the reclaimed areas. Sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation are common on the recovered area and fertigation is used on 13 percent of the land. There are up to three harvests per year, the overall cropping intensity being 180 percent. Crop yields and rates of fertilizer use are relatively high. In order to provide for a large and increasing population, while economizing scarce resources and minimizing adverse environmental impacts, the efficiency of use of both fertilizers and water needs to be improved. Continuing efforts must be made to communicate information on the best practices to a generally receptive farmer audience. Farm ers’ Field Schools make an important contribution to the transfer of information.

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