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Tackling Climate Change through Livestock

A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities

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    Book (series)
    Bioenergy and food security (BEFS) assessment – Seychelles 2022
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    A sustainable and stable energy supply is essential for a country’s stability and wellbeing. Seychelles, like many small island developing states (SIDS), currently depends on imported energy, in the form of fossil fuels. The high dependence on fossil fuel imports means Seychelles is highly vulnerable to disruptions in global markets. The situation is exacerbated by a reliance on imported food, which accounts for about 70 percent of food consumption. To limit this dependence, it is aiming to increase its reliance on renewable energy to 15 percent by 2030, with a long-term ambition of using 100 percent renewable sources for electricity production. Sustainable bioenergy is one form of renewable energy that can be used to green a country’s energy mix. This Sustainable Bioenergy Assessment report for Seychelles looks at the potential for sustainable bioenergy within the country, considering the country context, conditions and delicate habitat. The report considers sustainable biomass sources from the agriculture, forestry and waste sectors. The assessment was conducted following the bioenergy and food security (BEFS) approach of FAO, and identifies a number of bioenergy pathways relevant for the country. Within the report, the different forms of biomass, their availability and viability are assessed. Livestock, crop and forestry residues, and the biodegradable portion of waste, otherwise destined for landfill, are among the sources of biomass considered. The use of these biomass types and amounts are then assessed from a technical and economic point of view, under different price scenarios, for the production of energy.
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    Low carbon livestock development in Kyrgyzstan
    Quantifying the future impact of the Regional Resilient Pastoral Communities Project on greenhouse gas emissions (Technical note)
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    This report presents the potential impact of the planned IFAD-funded Regional Resilient Pastoral Communities Project (RRPCP) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, both in terms of the overall impact of the project, and as a possible input to the update of Kyrgyzstan’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC). Previous NDCs have not formulated commitments to reduce emissions from the livestock sector, despite 85% of the agricultural area being used as pastures for grazing and 62% of the agricultural emissions coming from the livestock sector (Government of Kyrgyzstan 2016). Since the level of assessment in the NDC includes only direct emissions, this report also presents the overall impact of the RRPCP considering the life cycle emissions. It includes recommendations to mitigate the GHG emissions associated with cattle, sheep and goat production systems in Kyrgyzstan. The assessment was carried out using the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model-interactive (, a tool developed by FAO to measure emissions from livestock value chains and compare the impact of future scenarios. This assessment was undertaken as part of the FAO project “Low carbon and resilient livestock development strategies for climate informed investments”. The project aims to support IFAD-funded projects in Ethiopia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho and Tajikistan to develop and implement strategies that will improve livestock production while reducing the GHG emissions. Results related to NDC have been included in the 2021 report “Analysis of livestock and pasture sub- sectors for the NDC revision in Kyrgyzstan” by GIZ, FAO and IFAD.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Climate change and the global dairy cattle sector
    The role of the dairy sector in a low-carbon future
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    The challenge for policy-makers – and for the dairy sector – is how to reduce environmental impacts while continuing to meet society’s needs. Dairy products are a rich source of essential nutrients that contributes to a healthy and nutritious diet. With demand for high-quality animal sourced protein increasing globally, the dairy sector is well placed to contribute to global food security and poverty reduction through the supply of dairy products. In so doing, it is essential that sector growth is sustainable in terms of the environment, public and animal health and welfare and in terms of development, poverty alleviation and social progress. The world is already experiencing, for example, more frequent floods, storms and droughts, forest fires causing damage to the environment and people’s livelihoods. The dairy sector must contribute effectively to the global effort to avoid dangerous climate change, become more resilient and prepare for and adapt to a changing climate. In order to limit temperature rise, the dairy sector must reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and work towards a low-carbon future. The good news is that there are many opportunities within the sector to limit climate change by reducing emissions. While there is some uncertainty about the size and timing of changes, it is certain that it is happening and acting now to protect our environment, economy and culture will always be worthwhile. To consider how to deal with climate change, the dairy sector needs to have evidence at hand, presented in a clear and comprehensible way, so stakeholders can see how they can and must contribute. This report is an attempt to understand the contribution of the dairy sector to global emissions between 2005 and 2015 as a first step towards addressing the challenge of climate change and defining a low-carbon pathway for the sector.

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